Doorways To Information In The 21st Century: Every New York Library an Electronic Doorway Library

A Brief Timeline of Electronic Doorway (EDL) and NOVEL-Ready Library Services Table Initiatives

1989 - New York State’s first technology plan - Technology and Access: The Electronic Doorway Library - introduced the EDL concept

1993 - The second statewide technology plan - The Electronic Doorway Library: Meeting the Information Needs of the People of New York State - further developed the EDL concept and established two EDL levels: Basic and Advanced: indicating guidelines for technology services offered from both from within and outside the library

1994 (September) through 1997 - The first phase of the EDL initiative was launched, with 2,396 or 34% of the State’s 7,000 libraries participating

1995 - A consultant report - Electronic Doorway Libraries in New York - was published analyzing and recommending further development of the EDL program

1996 - A document titled Report of the Electronic Doorway Library Working Group to Library Development provided guidance on how to proceed with the development of the third statewide technology plan

1996-1997 - The State legislature appropriates $2 million in state fund to libraries to support the EDL initiative

1998 - The third statewide technology plan - Doorways to Information in the 21st Century: Every New York Library an Electronic Doorway Library - introduced the EDL levels: Basic 2000, Advanced 2000, Leader 2000, indicating guidelines for technology services offered both from within and outside a library through the year 2000

2000-2004 - The State Library continues to support and collect statistics for the EDL initiative

2005 - The name Electronic Doorway Library is changed to Novel-Ready Library Services and a library survey is conducted regarding library technology services with the EDL Levels Table upgraded to reflect changing technologies. A Novel-Ready Library Services website is created which posts the Levels Table and recognition certificates for each of the three levels (Basic, Advanced, Leader) for each of the three types of library systems that libraries can download and customize

2008 - NOVEL-Ready Library Services Levels Table changed to NOVELNY-Ready Library Services Table and upgraded to reflect changing technologies especially in the areas of technology training and services offered both within and outside the library

2011 - NOVELNY-Ready Library Services Table changed to Statewide Internet Library Level Table and upgraded with two notable changes: the recognition of mobile applications and updated connection speeds


NOVELNY-Ready (formerly Electronic Doorway Library Services)

Doorways To Information In The 21st Century:
Every New York Library an Electronic Doorway Library

1998

PREFACE

Doorways to Information in the 21st Century: Every New York Library an Electronic Doorway Library provides New Yorkers with a statewide plan for technology-based library services for the remainder of the century. The third in a series of statewide library technology plans issued during the past eleven years, Doorways to Information in the 21st Century updates the previous two plans published in 1987/1989 and 1993 respectively.

The third statewide library technology plan advances electronic doorway library services, reflecting the ongoing development of the technology of information delivery and the increasing appreciation by library users of the value of electronic information. The plan provides a blueprint for electronic doorway library services in New York State for the next three years, 1998-2000. It includes no mandates.

The implementation of the third statewide library technology plan coincides with the creation of the Commission on Library Services by the Board of Regents at its December, 1997 meeting. The Commission will develop and recommend both a vision of library service for the people of New York State and a plan to ensure equity of access to information for all New Yorkers. Doorways to Information in the 21st Century will be useful to the work of the Commission in two ways - it will provide valuable background information and serve as a platform on which long-range planning can build.

I congratulate the Electronic Doorway Library Action Committee for its excellent work on behalf of the statewide library community and all New Yorkers. I also encourage implementation of all 23 recommendations included in the plan and advancement of all New York libraries to the new Electronic Doorway Library Levels - Basic 2000, Advanced, and Leader - as quickly as possible.

Sincerely,

Janet M. Welch
State Librarian and
Assistant Commissioner for Libraries

VISION

Every individual in New York State should have access to electronic doorway library services. An electronic doorway library (EDL), as an integral part of the statewide electronic learning community, uses computers and telecommunications technology, a full range of library resources, and the services of skilled library personnel to:

    • create, assemble, evaluate, and use information;
    • extend access to library services from homes, schools, work places, and other locations;
    • facilitate access by people with disabilities and other special needs; and
    • go beyond the library's walls to obtain information and resources.

 Electronic doorway libraries meet the ongoing library and information needs of education, government, business, and all people regardless of age, background, and location.

PURPOSE OF PLAN

Doorways to Information in the 21st Century: Every New York Library an Electronic Doorway Library, the third statewide library technology plan, essentially serves the same purposes as the first and second plans. The third plan:

    • Promotes and enhances the electronic doorway library as the unifying concept for providing electronic library services to the residents of New York State;
    • Establishes direction and benchmarks for statewide technology planning and development by libraries, library systems, and the New York State Library through the remainder of the 20th century;
    • Advances the statewide Electronic Doorway Library Initiative which is playing an increasingly larger role in contributing to equity of access to information by all New Yorkers;
    • Advocates to those external to the library community - such as Federal, State, and local legislators and officials; the Board of Regents; BOCES/Big 5 City superintendents; and academic and school administrators - about the value of technology in providing the best library services possible for users;
    • Provides libraries and library systems with a framework for obtaining technology funding either to become electronic doorway libraries or to enhance existing EDL services;
    • Contributes to the efforts of libraries and library systems both to develop local funding sources and collaborate with non-traditional partners for the delivery of electronic library services; and
    • Serves as the fundamental document in making the case for obtaining increased State funding to be used for technology purposes by libraries and library systems and for having this funding be based in law. 

INTRODUCTION

Doorways to Information in the 21st Century: Every New York Library an Electronic Doorway Library is the third statewide library technology plan. The first plan was published in two parts. Libraries and Technology: A Strategic Plan for the Use of Advanced Technologies for Library Resource Sharing in New York State was produced in 1987. Technology and Access: The Electronic Doorway Library was issued in 1989 as the operational part of the plan. The second technology plan, The Electronic Doorway Library: Meeting the Information Needs of the People of New York State, was published in 1993.

The 16-member Electronic Doorway Library Action Committee was appointed in June, 1996 to develop the third plan. The Action Committee worked from August, 1996 through December, 1997. During that period the committee met 11 times; and it conducted two sets of regional meetings, five meetings apiece, to obtain input prior to writing the plan and in response to a draft version of the plan, respectively. An additional meeting was held at the same time as the second set of regional meetings to receive advice about the plan from the point of view of culturally diverse library users and users with special needs. The result of this 17-month process is the third statewide library technology plan.

Doorways to Information in the 21st Century further develops the EDL concept and initiative. It includes four main sections - Infrastructure, Content, Training, Additional Issues - and an Electronic Doorway Library Levels Table. In organizing the plan in this way, the committee followed, but also refined, the thinking of both the Electronic Doorway Library Working Group and the New York State Conference of Library Systems. The EDL Working Group organized its January 1996 report into three categories: technological education, telecommunications access, and content. The Conference of Library Systems, in its February 1996 EDL Vision Statement, mirrored these three categories by stating that electronic doorway libraries, through their library systems, must provide access, content, and training.

The third statewide library technology plan includes 23 recommendations and three EDL criteria levels. The recommendations and criteria have different, but related, purposes. Recommendations provide general direction and support for electronic doorway library services in the State. The criteria, revised substantially since 1993 to reflect current library technology, specifically set forth the requirements for recognition of EDL libraries in the State at the Basic 2000, Advanced, and Leader Levels. Through the combination of recommendations and criteria levels, this plan provides advice about, and opportunities for, electronic doorway library services in New York State. The plan includes no mandates.

Doorways to Information in the 21st Century: Every New York Library an Electronic Doorway Library sets the stage for the second phase of the EDL Initiative. The long-term goal of the initiative is to have all libraries in New York become electronic doorway libraries. Considerable progress was made during the first phase of the initiative which began in 1994, but much remains to be done. The third plan advises how to move closer to the goal of having all libraries in the State become electronic doorway libraries over the next three years, or through the year 2000.

NATIONAL AND STATE NETWORKING ENVIRONMENT

The Internet originated in the United States in 1969 as part of the research work of the United States Department of Defense, but it gradually became an international network of networks. For many years, the Internet was an arcane tool used almost exclusively by technical experts and researchers. This began to change in the late 1980s with the increased availability of network access to everyday computer users through a variety of online service providers. The trend to common user access to the Internet, which has continued with unprecedented growth, was reinforced by several Federal legislative initiatives beginning in 1991.

The Electronic Doorway Library: Meeting the Information Needs of the People of New York State (1993), the second statewide library technology plan, commented on the initial legislation. "Enactment of the High Performance Computing Act of 1991 has given networking activities in the United States a focus through the authorization of the National Research and Education Network (NREN). The NREN will be the defining network infrastructure for educational institutions and libraries."

The passage of the High Performance Computing Act has resulted in several major developments. The Clinton Administration introduced the National Information Infrastructure (NII) in 1993 as a blueprint for implementation of the NREN. The Administration called for the NII, with the expanded Internet, or Information Superhighway, as a key component, to play a major role in the economic, educational, and overall societal development of this country. The vision of the NII was later expanded to be part of the Global Information Infrastructure, or GII, to include all countries.

Federal Telecommunications Act of 1996

The Federal Telecommunications Act of 1996 is a direct outgrowth of the NII Initiative. One of the major elements underlying the 1996 Telecommunications Act is the expanded concept of universal service. As a result of this Act, universal service now includes access, by all Americans, not only to telephones, but also to advanced communications and information services. Recent figures provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce show that only about 20% of American households are connected to the Internet, so there is a long way to go to realize the vision of access by all citizens to network services. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 takes a significant step toward addressing this need through an amendment which will help to achieve the goal of connecting all libraries to the Internet by the year 2000, thus making Internet access available to all citizens through libraries.

As a result of the Snowe-Rockefeller-Kerrey-Exon amendment, the Federal Telecommunications Act establishes in law the requirement that libraries, schools, and rural health-care providers receive substantial discounts from their telecommunications costs so as to make it more affordable for them to connect to the Internet on an ongoing basis. After more than a year of discussions involving the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the New York State Public Service Commission (PSC), the State Education Department (SED), and the statewide library community, discounted rates should take effect in 1998. These discounted rates will enable libraries to play a key role in addressing major concerns about American society being divided between information "haves" and "have nots."

Other Developments

In addition to the 1996 Telecommunications Act, another important outgrowth of the National Information Infrastructure Initiative was the transfer of the administrative and operational responsibilities for a primary component of the Internet (NSFNet) from the Federal government to the private sector. This change - combined with a dramatic increase in network use - has had a detrimental effect on the amount of network capacity, or bandwidth, available to research institutions, including their libraries. To help solve the problem of reduced network capacity, the Internet 2 project, involving more than 100 universities, was launched in 1996 with the goal of creating and sustaining a leading edge network capability for the national research community.

The Internet 2 project is compatible and complementary with the Next Generation Internet (NGI) Initiative which was introduced in President Clinton's 1997 State of the Union Address. Through the NGI Initiative, the Clinton Administration envisions a powerful and versatile environment for business, education, culture, and entertainment supported by a second generation of Internet that can transport data on network backbones at speeds up to 1,000 times faster than today. The NGI Initiative is the most recent in a series of events which collectively describe a focus on the importance of the Internet for both the nation and New York State.

A. INFRASTRUCTURE

Background

The Electronic Doorway Library (1993) established Internet access as a criterion for recognition at the beyond-basic level rather than making this a basic level requirement. In 1993, the Internet was still an emerging technology. Only a relatively limited number of libraries in New York had access to the Internet. However, many other libraries in the State were providing electronic services, and a number of libraries were providing state-of-the-art electronic information services other than Internet. The Electronic Doorway Library plan, therefore, determined that Internet access should be established as a beyond-basic level requirement in the short-term to allow room for libraries that were providing electronic services but did not yet have Internet connections to be recognized at the basic level. At the same time, the Biennial Review Committee, which developed The Electronic Doorway Library plan, was confident that libraries which qualified only at the basic level would obtain Internet access and thus advance to the beyond-basic level as quickly as possible.

The Committee's confidence was well placed. As of June 30, 1995, when the first group of 1,359 electronic doorway libraries was recognized, the percentage breakdown between the two levels was 55% basic and 45% beyond-basic. By December 31, 1997, the number of libraries at the basic level had decreased to 28% and those at the beyond-basic level had increased to 72%. This represented a 27% shift in favor of libraries with Internet access in two and one-half years. What made this change even more impressive was that it took place at the same time that the overall number of electronic doorway libraries increased, by 1,037, to a total of 2,396.

The transition strategy established by the committee was a success. The Electronic Doorway Library plan acknowledged the significant efforts of many libraries to provide electronic services for their users even though they did not yet have Internet connections; at the same time, the plan encouraged libraries to add Internet access to their other electronic services as soon as they were able, and a large number of libraries did so.

Internet for All Electronic Doorway Libraries

Given enough time, all basic level libraries would evolve to the beyond-basic level. But in view of developments since 1993, it is now time to accelerate the process by establishing Internet access as a requirement for all electronic doorway libraries. By requiring that all electronic doorway libraries have access to the Internet, New York State will be able to synchronize with the goal established in the 1996 Federal Telecommunications Act of having all libraries in the nation be connected to the Internet by the year 2000.

However, electronic doorway libraries should not just be connected to the Internet. That is, EDLs should not only provide Internet access to information resources external to the library; they should also provide Internet access to the library's own information resources. The Electronic Doorway Library plan (1993) required that a basic level EDL provide access both to resources outside the library and to its own resources, but only by locally determined electronic methods. Furthermore, even though the 1993 plan established Internet access as a beyond-basic level requirement, many EDLs at that level only provide Internet access to resources outside the library.

To enable a balanced progression in the provision of electronic services for users in 1998 and beyond, access to information resources outside the library and to the library's own information resources via the Internet should be a requirement for electronic doorway library recognition. Establishing this new requirement for EDL recognition exemplifies the natural evolution in the provision of electronic services that is an integral and inevitable part of the ongoing Electronic Doorway Library Initiative.

RECOMMENDATION A1: Every electronic doorway library shall provide access via the Internet both to its own information resources in a local online catalog and/or system/regional union or virtual catalog and to the vast array of information resources available elsewhere on the Internet, according to one of the three electronic doorway library levels (see EDL Levels Table).

  • Any library recognized as an electronic doorway library January 1, 1998 or thereafter shall provide access via the Internet to its own information resources and to information resources outside the library.
  • Electronic doorway libraries currently at the basic level, as defined in The Electronic Doorway Library (1993), shall have until December 31, 2000 to provide access via the Internet to their own information resources and to information resources outside the library.
  • Electronic doorway libraries currently at the beyond-basic level, as defined in The Electronic Doorway Library (1993), but which only provide Internet access to information resources outside the library, shall have until December 31, 2000 to provide Internet access to their own information resources as well.

Workstations

In order to realize maximum effectiveness from the telecommunications services defined in the EDL Levels Table, libraries should provide workstations that enable users, including those with disabilities, to fully access and use electronic resources. The computer industry's new product cycle is growing shorter, but electronic doorway libraries must be able to adjust to this dynamic hardware environment in order to be able to provide high quality workstations for users.

State-of-the-art hardware is changing so rapidly that this plan does not attempt to provide advice about which workstation specifications would be appropriate for libraries over the next three years. However, it can be stated that workstation obsolescence is a never-ending factor in providing electronic doorway library services.

The budgets of electronic doorway libraries should include funding to upgrade or replace workstations on an ongoing basis. Related to this is the need for electronic doorway library budgets to allow for an adequate number of workstations to meet the needs of users. A sufficient number of robust workstations, which serve the needs of all users, is an essential component in providing electronic doorway library services.

RECOMMENDATION A2: Electronic doorway libraries should provide Internet capable workstations for users. An EDL should:

  • Equip workstations with the processor speed and memory required to provide the services applicable for that library as outlined in the EDL Levels Table;
  • Upgrade or replace workstations every 3-5 years;
  • Provide a sufficient number of workstations to meet the needs of library users during normal business hours; and
  • Furnish adaptive computer technology as needed to provide access for users with disabilities.

         

Z39.50 and Interoperability

In addition to the rationale stated earlier for requiring that all electronic doorway libraries provide Internet access to their own as well as to external information resources, this requirement also represents a step forward in the long-term effort to provide access to the component parts of the virtual statewide library catalog in New York. One of the priorities of Libraries and Technology (1987) and Technology and Access (1989), the initial two-part statewide library technology plan, was continued development of the distributed statewide library catalog to enable electronic access to the information resources of all New York libraries by any resident of the State. Requiring that all electronic doorway libraries make their own information resources, not just external resources, accessible via the Internet signifies progress in the effort to establish an effective distributed, or virtual, statewide library catalog in New York.

The initial statewide library technology plan not only stressed the importance of electronic access to bibliographic records in New York's libraries but also placed considerable emphasis on the significance of linkages - among the disparate automated systems that house the component parts of the distributed statewide library catalog - in order to achieve the most effective resource-sharing possible among libraries and library systems in New York State. By the time The Electronic Doorway Library (1993) was issued, the terminology had changed from "linkages" to "interoperability"; and the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Z39.50, Version 2 (1992) standard/protocol for information retrieval had been developed and was in the early stages of implementation by vendors of automated systems. Today, Z39.50, Version 2 client and server software has been installed on a number of library automated systems in New York, and Z39.50, Version 3 (1995) is being implemented by system vendors and installed by some libraries and library systems.

The promise of the original statewide library technology plan is beginning to be realized through the use of Z39.50 compliant automated systems via the Internet by libraries and library systems. Electronic doorway library services based upon the Z39.50 protocol should become widespread throughout New York. A major increase in the purchase, installation, and use of Z39.50 compliant software on automated systems will be a significant step toward achieving the long-sought goal of "seamless interoperability" for resource sharing purposes among electronic doorway libraries in New York State.

RECOMMENDATION A3: Libraries and library systems should implement software which makes their automated systems Z39.50 compliant. They should:

  • Install both Z39.50 client and server software, with the client preferably having broadcast capability to enable access to multiple servers simultaneously;
  • Provide the highest version of Z39.50 software that availability and resources permit; and
  • Work with the New York State Library and the Office of General Services Library Advisory Group to provide statewide contracts for the purchase of Z39.50 compliant software.

B. CONTENT

Background

Electronic doorway libraries offer their users a wide variety of resources which many would not have thought possible even a decade ago. In fact, the amount of information available to users through electronic doorway libraries has increased exponentially over just the past few years. Librarians in New York State cannot simply open the "electronic doorway" a crack. They must open the door completely - and keep it open - for all residents of the State. To be an electronic doorway, a library must be capable of focusing access to electronic resources at the point of service, i.e., the user. In order to accomplish this objective, electronic services must be available throughout the library building and from outside of the library as well.

Catalogs and Other Links to Information

Current developments in electronic services provide a wide range of traditional and new library services for users and potential users of all ages and interests. Multi-lingual online catalogs and reference databases may be offered to culturally diverse populations, while special equipment may assist those with visual and/or other physical disabilities. Users who are unable to come to the library because they are mobility-impaired will welcome access to electronic services from homes, schools, workplaces, and/or other locations. The automation marketplace offers many choices to meet the needs of libraries and users.

With these choices, however, comes the need to identify and separate good products, from those which are lacking, in terms of quality and appropriateness, method of access and delivery, or contractual specifications regarding how access and delivery may be provided. Of equal importance is the need for the library to organize and provide access to information resources. These types of issues exist whether the library is taking its first steps toward electronic doorway library recognition or is already providing extensive electronic services. Libraries should not deal with these issues, or make decisions, in a vacuum.

New York State benefits from an extensive network of library systems. These systems have demonstrated that they are uniquely positioned to provide leadership, information, and support for development of electronic doorway libraries. The role of systems is fundamental to the success of the Electronic Doorway Library Initiative. Systems should be explicitly charged with encouraging their member libraries to develop local catalogs and other electronic links which together create a library's gateway to information resources. Library systems are also responsible for coordinating the development of system/regional union or virtual catalogs which include the information resources of member libraries. As catalogs are linked throughout the State by the Internet and Z39.50 technology, they will form the virtual statewide library catalog.

RECOMMENDATION B1: Public library systems, reference and research library resources systems, and school library systems should encourage and assist member libraries to develop catalogs and other electronic links to resources which together create a library's information gateway. Catalogs and other electronic links should reflect the diverse needs of libraries and users and should be accessible from remote locations via the Internet. 

As just suggested, the concept of the catalog has expanded from being a record of the books and journals held by a library to also being a means of access to information resources through links in catalog records. Through these links, known as hyperlinks, users may gain access to electronic databases, World Wide Web sites, digitized collections, all types of media, and even objects. Clearly, though, the catalog, as a bibliographic database of the library's records and holdings, is the core of electronic doorway library services. Thus, all EDLs shall provide access to their bibliographic records and holdings for users from both inside and outside the library as described in the EDL Levels Table. In this way, libraries will increase access to their records and holdings locally as well as within their systems/regions and the State.

Since it is important for a local catalog to be complete, records and holdings of both retrospective and current materials should be included. The inclusion of all records and holdings in catalogs is also necessary to maximize the benefits of resource sharing for library users in New York. Libraries that are just getting started with retrospective conversion should develop plans to complete this process in a timely fashion.

Some may argue that State-supported retrospective conversion projects should concentrate on unique records because they are not electronically accessible anywhere, including the databases of the large bibliographic utilities. However, if every New York library is to become an electronic doorway library, the Division of Library Development and library systems should continue to encourage conversion of ubiquitous, or commonly held, materials as well.

RECOMMENDATION B2: Retrospective conversion projects for both unique and ubiquitous records should be eligible for appropriate State and/or Federal funding provided through the State Education Department. Libraries applying for such projects should agree to:

  • Contribute bibliographic records and holdings to system/regional union or virtual catalogs and the virtual statewide library catalog;
  • Commit to use the USMARC format as specified in USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data;
  • Make materials available through interlibrary loan or in-house; and
  • Use local funds to convert the bibliographic records and holdings of all materials acquired during and after the initial retrospective conversion project year.

Database Access and Resource Sharing

After providing users with access to bibliographic records and holdings in an online catalog, one of the services offered through the expanded catalog - and usually the next step in developing the catalog - is access to electronic resources such as indexes and abstracts, full-text databases, and reference materials. These resources, which are most often produced commercially, may be accessible locally or remotely. Like the library catalog, electronic access to such resources expands the potential library service base especially since access may be tailored according to the languages, interests, and/or needs of the population served by the library.

Commercially available resources are usually expensive; and access to these resources is determined by license agreements which, in many cases, are complicated and restrictive. To add to these concerns, publishers frequently offer lower prices to libraries with larger user populations, placing smaller libraries at a disadvantage. Regional and statewide consortial contracts with publishers help to mitigate this problem by providing access to resources for groups of smaller libraries at the same cost as for larger libraries. These types of arrangements should be encouraged.

RECOMMENDATION B3: The New York State Library and public library systems, reference and research library resources systems, and school library systems should play a leadership role, on behalf of libraries and diverse populations of library users, in negotiating and developing agreements for licenses to access databases.

  • Statewide licenses should be developed for a variety of databases to which libraries or library systems may subscribe.
  • The Office of General Services Library Advisory Group should facilitate the establishment of statewide licenses.
  • The Division of Library Development should encourage, through appropriate funding, collaborative ventures among libraries, regardless of geography or system affiliation, for the purchase of licenses to databases.
  • All licenses should include authorization for remote access. 

As libraries provide increased access to electronic resources, additional issues arise which demand attention. For example, it is more difficult to determine the use of a library's resources when its services include access to electronic information at remote sites. Use data, which is traditionally determined by circulation and reshelving statistics, may need to be augmented by the number of searches of a library's electronic resources.

State agencies and other governing bodies have not yet developed guidelines for reporting use of electronic information by libraries. Since information reported to agencies such as BEDS (Basic Educational Data System) and HEDS (Higher Education Data System) may affect the level of funding reimbursement for a library, it is important that consistent guidelines be developed for reporting the use of electronic resources provided by, or accessible to, libraries.

RECOMMENDATION B4: The Division of Library Development should establish definitions and guidelines for reporting data about the use of electronic resources owned, or made available, by libraries. Such definitions and guidelines should be consistent with those being developed nationally by agencies such as the Association of Research Libraries.

In spite of considerable interest in full-text retrieval and document delivery, these technologies still only apply to certain resources. Interlibrary loan (ILL) will continue to be the only way to obtain some other materials, so it is important that libraries be able to provide the most streamlined ILL services possible.

However, the rapid development of library automation systems and electronic information services raises many issues regarding interlibrary loan policies and procedures. One of the more significant issues is that automation systems are beginning to allow users not only to identify needed materials but also to submit interlibrary loan requests electronically. Some may look upon this capability as a problem, but others see it as an opportunity.

A standard approved by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) will play a significant role in libraries being able to provide efficient and cost-effective ILL services, including user-initiated interlibrary loan. This standard/protocol, which allows seamless interactive communication of messages among interlibrary loan/document delivery systems of different vendors, is published in two parts: ISO 10160 and 10161. Just as standardized access to bibliographic records and holdings via the Z39.50 protocol is important, as noted earlier, standardized messaging for interlibrary loan, as well as user-initiated ILL, will play a significant role in enabling electronic doorway libraries to provide high quality services. New York libraries and library systems need to stay abreast of these developments and take advantage of this capability as opportunity permits.

RECOMMENDATION B5: To provide efficient interlibrary loan service and reduce the heavy personnel costs involved with this process, libraries and library systems should:

  • Regularly examine interlibrary loan policies and delivery mechanisms in light of expanded availability of electronic information;
  • Become informed about the interlibrary loan (ILL) protocol, ISO 10160 and 10161, to understand the benefits it can provide;
  • Encourage library automation vendors to implement the ILL protocol on their systems and monitor their progress in doing so;
  • Purchase ILL protocol compliant software as it becomes available and resources permit; and
  • Allow, as feasible, for user-initiated electronic ILL requests.

Digitization and Content Development

In order to expand the scope of online information available to residents of New York, libraries should be encouraged to provide access to some of their resources in digital format via the Internet. Providing access to digitized resources will primarily involve the conversion of existing materials, but some libraries may also develop new content. Digitization of resources on a large scale is being undertaken or planned for as demonstrated by the "American Memory" project at the Library of Congress and the "Making of New York" project of the eleven New York State Comprehensive Research Libraries, respectively.

Smaller digitization projects would also be beneficial. These projects may focus on materials in library collections. However, there is also considerable potential for collaboration with government agencies, historical societies, and other organizations, both public and private, to digitize materials such as local government records, historical photographs, and/or archival documents. Such projects would use emerging technologies to create new roles for, and promote the value of, libraries in preserving culture; and they would help to provide equal access to knowledge, protect intellectual freedom, and serve as a catalyst for the growth of individuals, learning, and society.

Digitization projects are complex, requiring careful planning, creative use of technology, and long-term commitment to ensure that data is properly maintained and upgraded. State leadership in such digitization efforts would enable coordination and provide a forum in which to share ideas, information, and techniques.

RECOMMENDATION B6: The New York State Library, working with the Office of Cultural Education and other appropriate agencies, should play a leadership role to help coordinate digitization efforts among libraries and between libraries and other institutions to:

  • Ensure broad access to digitized records;
  • Encourage development of standards for digitization projects;
  • Avoid duplication of effort;
  • Serve as a means for archiving information; and
  • Assure ongoing accessibility by migrating digital files and upgrading equipment.

C. TRAINING

Background

The goal that every library in New York State become an electronic doorway library includes the objective that every EDL become a center of technology information for its community of users. The achievement of this objective is important to the overall success of the Electronic Doorway Library Initiative.

The previous two sections of this plan provide information and recommendations relevant to the infrastructure available to, and content accessible by, electronic doorway libraries. However, sophisticated networks and electronic resources are of no value unless people know how to use them. Training is required in order to use, and benefit fully from, services provided by electronic doorway libraries.

Training for Library Personnel and Users

For many years library personnel and users could peruse the card catalog and find books and information. But with the introduction of technology and the Internet, access to library information is undergoing dramatic changes. These changes, while improving and expanding access to information, alter the procedures that library personnel and users traditionally have followed to find resources. Libraries need to provide the training required for people to work in and use electronic doorway libraries.

Training will vary based upon the needs of the individual library. Factors that will influence needs are the library's mission, diversity of its users, and size of staff and collection(s). Although there is no definitive training program that will meet the needs of all libraries, certain elements should be part of every library's training plan. At a minimum, these include training goals, identification of trainees, descriptions of training, and costs. Training programs should include a variety of approaches, ranging from written handouts with introductory information to computer-based, interactive programs. In some libraries, training programs will need to be multi-lingual.

RECOMMENDATION C1: Libraries and library systems should regularly assess library personnel and user training needs. Assessments of training needs should take into account library personnel and users who are from diverse cultures, use different learning styles, and/or are visually or physically challenged.

Before training for users can proceed, libraries need to ensure that their own personnel have knowledge of new technologies. Technology and Training for Libraries in Transition (1996), a report of the New York Library Association to the New York State Education Department, provides considerable information about the training of library personnel in New York.

The report groups the skills required by library personnel into two categories: 1) computer literacy, and 2) telecommunications and navigational knowledge. It goes on to describe the skills needed for librarians to carry out the various roles they fill, i.e., information specialist, educator, new-technology specialist, manager, and consultant; and it discusses the ways of providing training for library personnel under the following categories: formal education and training programs, self-education, apprenticeships, on-the-job training, experience or practice, and continuing education.

Competencies for personnel in electronic doorway libraries include among other things: use of the Internet, online searching strategies, familiarity with computer hardware and software, and fundamentals of an electronic doorway library. These competencies also include knowledge of infrastructure, ability to install software and to configure and maintain computers and networks, advanced knowledge of searching and evaluating electronic resources, train-the-trainer skills, and experience in creating and publishing information. Continual training to stay abreast of these and other EDL competencies is essential for appropriate personnel who work in electronic doorway libraries.

RECOMMENDATION C2: Libraries and library systems should ensure that appropriate library personnel receive computer, Internet, and other technology training and that they have access to equipment for these purposes. (See EDL Levels Table for modes of training for the three levels of electronic doorway libraries). 

Once library personnel have been trained, electronic doorway libraries should also provide training for users. Training for users is not a new service for academic and school libraries. Their missions have traditionally included education and instruction programs for faculty and students. However, user training is not as widespread in public and special libraries.

Training for users needs to be on-going, and it should also be coordinated with the development and availability of new content. To stay up-to-date with the fast-paced changes in technology and information services, training should proceed along a continuum that addresses the needs of the novice information-seeker as well as the sophisticated user, and the economically, physically, visually, and/or developmentally challenged as well as the affluent, literate user. As is the case with the training of library personnel, training of users should focus on how to obtain needed information and resources, including use of the Internet.

RECOMMENDATION C3: Libraries should provide Internet and technology training for users, including hands-on training. Training for users should meet the diverse needs of the populations served by libraries. (See EDL Levels Table for modes of training for the three levels of electronic doorway libraries).

Grant Applications and Plans of Service

Each library and library system must decide whether to provide training for library personnel and users. However, one way to promote training is to require all libraries and library systems that apply to the Division of Library Development for State and/or Federal funding for technology purposes to describe the training needed to successfully carry out the proposed project.

RECOMMENDATION C4: The Division of Library Development should require all grant applications for technology projects to include a description of training needed for the projects and how it will be accomplished.

Library system plans of service have several purposes. A plan of service provides the contract between the State and the governing board of a library system which makes possible the payment of State aid to the system. It also articulates the mutual commitments, responsibilities, and obligations of the system and its member libraries; the system's mission, goals, and plans; and how the system is meeting the service needs of its community or region as well as statewide library service goals. System plans of service should further the provision of technology training by libraries and library systems.

RECOMMENDATION C5: The Division of Library Development should require that a technology training component be included in all library system plans of service.

Role of New York State Library

Leadership by the New York State Library will foster an environment which promotes and advances training in libraries and library systems. Partnerships established between the State Library and other State organizations, regional organizations, consortia, and/or educational institutions could lead to collaborative opportunities for training; and they could also provide the impetus for the development of a statewide training plan to meet the needs of New York's geographically and culturally-diverse population. However, an undertaking which should precede both of these opportunities is for the State Library, working with others, to make information about training available at a centralized and accessible location.

RECOMMENDATION C6: The New York State Library should collaborate with library systems and other interested organizations or institutions to establish a mechanism, such as a Website or listserv, which provides a clearinghouse for the dissemination of training information, e.g., trainers, programs, grants.

Just as the availability of information is no longer limited to the library building because of the development of telecommunications networks and electronic services, training opportunities no longer have to take place in a library or even within the immediate geographic area of the library. Distance learning is beginning to play a role in the provision of training opportunities. It enhances training by making needed information accessible to and from remote sites, and it helps to address the training needs of those who are disadvantaged physically, culturally, and/or economically. The use of distance learning as a training mechanism should be encouraged.

RECOMMENDATION C7: The New York State Education Department and the New York State Library should collaborate with library systems and their member libraries, school districts, professional library organizations, and schools of library and information science to develop distance learning - e.g., Websites, mobile labs, teleconferencing - for training purposes.

D. ADDITIONAL ISSUES

Background

While many recommendations in this plan fall within the categories of infrastructure, content, or training, some apply to all, or do not apply directly to any, of these categories. Such recommendations are included in this section of the plan.

Funding

Electronic doorway library services are central and critical to the function of a library. Boards of Trustees and administrators must not only make the initial investment in EDL services but must also be committed to maintenance and development of these services. Funding should be allocated for electronic doorway library services accordingly.

For all libraries, the majority of funding comes from local sources. State and Federal funding provided for overall library services through the Division of Library Development constitutes a smaller part of the budget of any library. As the 21st century approaches, the same relationship between local and State/Federal funding should also apply for electronic doorway library services.

RECOMMENDATION D1: Electronic doorway library services should be funded through a combination of local, State, and Federal sources. State and Federal funding provided for electronic doorway library services through the State Education Department should complement and build upon strong local funding. 

The Regent's legislative package includes: 1) Full funding for all programs in current library law, i.e., Chapter 917 of the Laws of 1990; and 2) The Electronic Doorway Library Services Bill. Full funding of current library law relates directly to the previous recommendation which emphasizes the importance of local funding for EDL services. A broad definition of local funding sources may include State Education Department funding provided by the Division of Library Development for basic library services. The Electronic Doorway Library Services Bill is a State Education Department funding initiative designed to advance the EDL Initiative. The EDL Services Bill primarily provides funding for library systems to assist member libraries with electronic doorway library services involving infrastructure, content, and training. The combination of full funding of Chapter 917 of the Laws of 1990 and the Electronic Doorway Library Services Bill would provide financial support that is urgently needed to enable a substantial increase in the number of electronic doorway libraries and the services they provide for users.

As noted earlier, the Federal Telecommunications Act of 1996 calls for discounts in telecommunications rates for libraries, schools, and rural health-care providers. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Order of May 8, 1997 describes the discount levels and services covered, which may be updated from time to time. The following are eligible to apply for discounts which should be put into effect in 1998:

  • public and association libraries (if they are members of public library systems);
  • school library media centers (as part of their school district application);
  • not-for-profit special libraries (if they are members of reference and research library resources systems); and
  • library systems (school library systems as part of the application submitted by their BOCES or Big 5 City Board of Education).

However, even though a library or library system is eligible, discounts are not guaranteed. Furthermore, academic libraries are not eligible to receive discounts unless their budgets are completely independent of the institutions of which they are a part; and for-profit special libraries are not eligible for discounts under any circumstances. Libraries that do not receive discounts through the program developed by the FCC should receive some other type of monetary assistance to partially underwrite telecommunications costs.

To help provide electronic doorway library services for users, libraries and library systems should receive either Federal discounts or State subsidies for interstate and intrastate telecommunications services, internal connections, and Internet connectivity. The combination of Federal discounts and State subsidies would contribute to a considerable increase in Internet access among libraries.

RECOMMENDATION D2: The New York statewide library community should endorse:

  • Full funding for Chapter 917 of the Laws of 1990;
  • The Electronic Doorway Library Services Bill; andAny future Regents legislative proposal(s) that would include libraries and library systems and provide them with:
      • Additional funds to enable electronic doorway library services beyond what the EDL Services Bill can support; and
      • Subsidies for eligible interstate and intrastate telecommunications services, internal connections, and Internet connectivity for which costs are not reduced for the library or library system through the discount program for telecommunications services developed by the Federal Communications Commission.

Assisting Libraries to Become Electronic Doorway Libraries

As libraries become electronic doorway libraries, they share a responsibility to contribute to the efforts of other libraries to achieve the same goal. This role is realized through motivation, development, building collaborative relationships, extending technical expertise, and fostering innovation. It is especially important that EDLs both share their knowledge and skill in technical areas with other libraries and encourage innovation by sponsoring and supporting the introduction of new and improved methods, products, procedures, and/or technologies for the benefit of other libraries.

RECOMMENDATION D3: Electronic doorway libraries should be responsible for helping other libraries as they work toward being recognized as EDLs. This role may be carried out in a variety of ways, e.g., an electronic doorway library may have staff who:

  • Publish or make presentations on technology topics that pertain to EDL services; or
  • Participate in an annual conference which provides programs on a variety of EDL-related topics.

The goal of the EDL Initiative is for all libraries in New York to become electronic doorway libraries, but only 34% of the 7,000 libraries in the State have been recognized to date. A few non-EDL libraries may meet the qualifying criteria but have not yet applied for recognition. However, most of the nearly 4,500 non-EDL libraries do not qualify for recognition as electronic doorway libraries.

School library media centers comprise, by far, the highest number of those libraries that do not qualify as electronic doorway libraries. Of the approximately 4,500 libraries that are not yet EDLs, some 3,000 are school library media centers. Special attention should be paid to overcoming the obstacles that school library media centers face in becoming electronic doorway libraries.

RECOMMENDATION D4: In the State Education Department, the Division of Library Development, Office of Cultural Education, and the Office of Elementary, Middle, Secondary, and Continuing Education should work with the BOCES/Big 5 City school library systems and local school districts respectively to assist all school library media centers to achieve electronic doorway library recognition.

Remaining Steps

In preparing the third statewide library technology plan, the Electronic Doorway Library Action Committee discussed library technology initiatives in other states, including GALILEO (Georgia), OhioLink/OPLIN/INFOhio (Ohio), and Sailor (Maryland). While the Action Committee agreed that New York State should continue with the EDL strategy for at least the next three years, it believes that coordination of certain technology services on a statewide basis may enhance and expand upon the Electronic Doorway Library Initiative during this period of time. The statewide services provided as a result of Recommendation B3 (earlier in the plan) may be the first step toward additional statewide electronic services.

RECOMMENDATION D5: The New York State Library should continually monitor opportunities for statewide technology initiatives - e.g., services like those provided by GALILEO, OhioLink, or Sailor - and, working with libraries and library systems, investigate, coordinate, and implement those that will build upon, and add to, the strengths and successes of the Electronic Doorway Library Initiative. 

One of the assets of New York State is the diversity of its people. To take full advantage of this diversity, every resident of the State must have the same opportunity to benefit from library services as every other resident. Libraries must not inhibit access to materials or services by culturally diverse library users or users with special needs. More specifically, all library users should benefit equally from technology-based library services.

The needs of culturally diverse library users and users with special needs have been addressed elsewhere in this plan in regard to specific recommendations. However, special understanding and attention are required to make sure that the extensive needs of these populations of library users are met.

RECOMMENDATION D6: The New York State Library and every library and library system should acknowledge cultural diversity and special needs in planning for the provision of technology-based library services for its community of users. The Commission on Library Services - approved by the Board of Regents in December, 1997 - should also make access to technology-based library services by culturally diverse library users and users with special needs a high priority in its deliberations and recommendations. The State Library, libraries, library systems, and the Commission on Library Services should seek partnerships to help provide such services for these populations of library users.

Each of the previous two statewide library technology plans recognized that periodic planning is critical to providing the highest quality technology-based library services possible for the residents of New York State. Both of those plans, therefore, included a recommendation that a new committee be appointed at the appropriate time to develop the next library technology plan. An analogous recommendation is included in the third statewide library technology plan.

RECOMMENDATION D7: Two to three years after publication of the third statewide library technology plan, the New York State Library should consult with libraries and library systems to review and evaluate the administrative and technological progress made based upon this plan and to decide upon the appropriate steps needed to continue to address statewide library technology planning.

RECOMMENDATIONS

A. INFRASTRUCTURE

      A1:Every electronic doorway library shall provide access via the Internet both to its own information resources in a local online catalog and/or system/regional union or virtual catalog and to the vast array of information resources available elsewhere on the Internet, according to one of the three electronic doorway library levels (see EDL Levels Table).

        • Any library recognized as an electronic doorway library January 1, 1998 or thereafter shall provide access via the Internet to its own information resources and to information resources outside the library.
        • Electronic doorway libraries currently at the basic level, as defined in The Electronic Doorway Library (1993), shall have until December 31, 2000 to provide access via the Internet to their own information resources and to information resources outside the library.
        • Electronic doorway libraries currently at the beyond-basic level, as defined in The Electronic Doorway Library (1993), but which only provide Internet access to information resources outside the library, shall have until December 31, 2000 to provide Internet access to their own information resources as well.

      A2:Electronic doorway libraries should provide Internet capable workstations for users. An EDL should:

        • Equip workstations with the processor speed and memory required to provide the services applicable for that library as outlined in the EDL Levels Table;
        • Upgrade or replace workstations every 3-5 years;
        • Provide a sufficient number of workstations to meet the needs of library users during normal business hours; and
        • Furnish adaptive computer technology as needed to provide access for users with disabilities.

      A3:Libraries and library systems should implement software which makes their automated systems Z39.50 compliant. They should:

        • Install both Z39.50 client and server software, with the client preferably having broadcast capability to enable access to multiple servers simultaneously;
        • Provide the highest version of Z39.50 software that availability and resources permit; and
        • Work with the New York State Library and the Office of General Services Library Advisory Group to provide statewide contracts for the purchase of Z39.50 compliant software.

B. CONTENT

      B1:Public library systems, reference and research library resources systems, and school library systems should encourage and assist member libraries to develop catalogs and other electronic links to resources which together create a library's information gateway. Catalogs and other electronic links should reflect the diverse needs of libraries and users and should be accessible from remote locations via the Internet.

      B2:Retrospective conversion projects for both unique and ubiquitous records should be eligible for appropriate State and/or Federal funding provided through the State Education Department. Libraries applying for such projects should agree to:

        • Contribute bibliographic records and holdings to system/regional union or virtual catalogs and the virtual statewide library catalog;
        • Commit to use the USMARC format as specified in USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data; Make materials available through interlibrary loan or in-house; and
        • Use local funds to convert the bibliographic records and holdings of all materials acquired during and after the initial retrospective conversion project year.

 B3:The New York State Library and public library systems, reference and research library resources systems, and school library systems should play a leadership role, on behalf of libraries and diverse populations of library users, in negotiating and developing agreements for licenses to access databases.

        • Statewide licenses should be developed for a variety of databases to which libraries or library systems may subscribe.
        • The Office of General Services Library Advisory Group should facilitate the establishment of statewide licenses.
        • The Division of Library Development should encourage, through appropriate funding, collaborative ventures among libraries, regardless of geography or system affiliation, for the purchase of licenses to databases.
        • All licenses should include authorization for remote access.

 B4:The Division of Library Development should establish definitions and guidelines for reporting data about the use of electronic resources owned, or made available, by libraries. Such definitions and guidelines should be consistent with those being developed nationally by agencies such as the Association of Research Libraries.

 B5:To provide efficient interlibrary loan service and reduce the heavy personnel costs involved with this process, libraries and library systems should: 

      • Regularly examine interlibrary loan policies and delivery mechanisms in light of expanded availability of electronic information;
      • Become informed about the interlibrary loan (ILL) protocol, ISO 10160 and 10161, to understand the benefits it can provide;
      • Encourage library automation vendors to implement the ILL protocol on their systems and monitor their progress in doing so;
      • Purchase ILL protocol compliant software as it becomes available and resources permit; and
      • Allow, as feasible, for user-initiated electronic ILL requests.

B6:The New York State Library, working with the Office of Cultural Education and other appropriate agencies, should play a leadership role to help coordinate digitization efforts among libraries and between libraries and other institutions to:

      •  Ensure broad access to digitized records;
      • Encourage development of standards for digitization projects;
      • Avoid duplication of effort;
      • Serve as a means for archiving information; and
      • Assure ongoing accessibility by migrating digital files and upgrading equipment.

C. TRAINING

      C1:Libraries and library systems should regularly assess library personnel and user training needs. Assessments of training needs should take into account library personnel and users who are from diverse cultures, use different learning styles, and/or are visually or physically challenged.

      C2:Libraries and library systems should ensure that appropriate library personnel receive computer, Internet, and other technology training and that they have access to equipment for these purposes. (See EDL Levels Table for modes of training for the three levels of electronic doorway libraries).

      C3:Libraries should provide Internet and technology training for users, including hands-on training. Training for users should meet the diverse needs of the populations served by libraries. (See EDL Levels Table for modes of training for the three levels of electronic doorway libraries).

      C4:The Division of Library Development should require all grant applications for technology projects to include a description of training needed for the projects and how it will be accomplished.

      C5:The Division of Library Development should require that a technology training component be included in all library system plans of service.

      C6:The New York State Library should collaborate with library systems and other interested organizations or institutions to establish a mechanism, such as a Website or listserv, which provides a clearinghouse for the dissemination of training information, e.g., trainers, programs, grants.

      C7:The New York State Education Department and the New York State Library should collaborate with library systems and their member libraries, school districts, professional library organizations, and schools of library and information science to develop distance learning - e.g., Websites, mobile labs, teleconferencing - for training purposes.

D. ADDITIONAL ISSUES

      D1: Electronic doorway library services should be funded through a combination of local, State, and Federal sources. State and Federal funding provided for electronic doorway library services through the State Education Department should complement and build upon strong local funding.

      D2:The New York statewide library community should endorse:

        • Full funding for Chapter 917 of the Laws of 1990;
        • The Electronic Doorway Library Services Bill; and
        • Any future Regents legislative proposal(s) that would include libraries and library systems and provide them with:
          • Additional funds to enable electronic doorway library services beyond what the EDL Services Bill can support; and
          • Subsidies for eligible interstate and intrastate telecommunications services, internal connections, and Internet connectivity for which costs are not reduced for the library or library system through the discount program for telecommunications services developed by the Federal Communications Commission.

      D3:Electronic doorway libraries should be responsible for helping other libraries as they work toward being recognized as EDLs. This role may be carried out in a variety of ways, e.g., an electronic doorway library may have staff who:

        • Publish or make presentations on technology topics that pertain to EDL services; or
        • Participate in an annual conference which provides programs on a variety of EDL-related topics.

      D4:In the State Education Department, the Division of Library Development, Office of Cultural Education, and the Office of Elementary, Middle, Secondary, and Continuing Education should work with the BOCES/Big 5 City school library systems and local school districts respectively to assist all school library media centers to achieve electronic doorway library recognition.

      D5:The New York State Library should continually monitor opportunities for statewide technology initiatives - e.g., services like those provided by GALILEO, OhioLink, or Sailor - and, working with libraries and library systems, investigate, coordinate, and implement those that will build upon, and add to, the strengths and successes of the Electronic Doorway Library Initiative.

      D6:The New York State Library and every library and library system should acknowledge cultural diversity and special needs in planning for the provision of technology-based library services for its community of users. The Commission on Library Services - approved by the Board of Regents in December, 1997 - should also make access to technology-based library services by culturally diverse library users and users with special needs a high priority in its deliberations and recommendations. The State Library, libraries, library systems, and the Commission on Library Services should seek partnerships to help provide such services for these populations of library users.

      D7:Two to three years after publication of the third statewide library technology plan, the New York State Library should consult with libraries and library systems to review and evaluate the administrative and technological progress made based upon this plan and to decide upon the appropriate steps needed to continue to address statewide library technology planning.

ELECTRONIC DOORWAY LIBRARY LEVELS TABLE

The following table describes three levels of electronic doorway library (EDL) criteria for infrastructure (columns 2-3), content (columns 4-5), and training (column 6).

    • The criteria for all three levels are minimum for that level.
    • A library must meet all of the criteria at a given level - infrastructure, content, and training - in order to qualify at that level.
    • Every electronic doorway library - at all three levels - shall provide access via the Internet to its own information resources and to information resources outside the library for both library personnel and users from both inside and outside the library. An EDL may also use locally determined electronic methods to provide access to resources.

 Note: For further explanation of the following table, see Appendix A

.
(1)



Level

(2)

Mode/Capacity

Of Internet

Connection

(3)

Type of Access

Via Internet

(4)

Content/Access to What from INSIDE Library

(for library's personnel and users primarily by locally determined electronic methods for its own resources and via the library's Internet connection for external resources)

(5)

Content/Access to What from OUTSIDE Library

(via an Internet Service Provider using personal account or another library's Internet connection although this does not preclude access by locally determined electronic methods also)

(6)

Training/Access Skills

Basic 2000

Dial up 28.8 Kbps line inside library building. Text-based Bibliographic records and holdings of the library in a local online catalog and/or system/regional union or virtual catalog; and

 

Bibliographic records and holdings of other libraries remotely via the Internet; and

 

Access to the Internet.
Bibliographic records and holdings of the library in a local online catalog and/or system/regional union or virtual catalog for all New York State residents via the Internet.

 
Introductory training about use of the Internet and other electronic services for library personnel and users.

Advanced

Dedicated 56 Kbps line inside library building.

 

 
Graphical; and



Z39.50, Version 2 - Client and Server.
Commercial databases and other appropriate added value resources electronically accessible in library and/or remotely via the Internet; and

 

Digitized resources remotely via the Internet; and

 

Staff-initiated electronic ordering and/or delivery of documents available in library and/or remotely via the Internet.
Non-commercial databases and other appropriate added value resources electronically accessible in library for all New York State residents via the Internet; and

 

Staff-initiated electronic ordering and/or delivery of documents available in library and/or remotely via the Internet for registered borrowers of library.
Multi-level training about use of the Internet and other electronic services for library personnel and users.

Leader

Dedicated T1 (1.544 Mbps) line inside library building. Multimedia; and

 

Z39.50, Version 3 - Client and Server.
Content in digital format created by, and electronically accessible in, library; and

 

Multimedia resources electronically accessible in library and remotely via the Internet; and

 

User-initiated electronic ordering and/or delivery of documents available in library and/or remotely via the Internet.
Content in digital format created by library and multimedia resources electronically accessible in library for all New York State residents via the Internet; and

 

User-initiated electronic ordering and/or delivery of documents available in library and/or remotely via the Internet for registered borrowers of library.
Technology-based training about use of the Internet and other electronic services for library personnel and users.

APPENDIX A: EXPLANATION OF ELECTRONIC DOORWAY LIBRARY LEVELS TABLE

Doorways to Information in the 21st Century: Every New York Library an Electronic Doorway Library (1998), the third New York statewide library technology plan, introduces three new EDL criteria levels - Basic 2000, Advanced, and Leader. These criteria levels replace the two levels established in The Electronic Doorway Library: Meeting the Information Needs of the People of New York State (1993), the second statewide library technology plan. The key concept of the new (1998) electronic doorway library criteria remains the same as for the old (1993) criteria, i.e., an EDL provides electronic access to resources both internal and external to the library from both inside and outside the library. However, the 1998 criteria have been revised and updated substantially to reflect the EDL services that libraries in New York should provide during the years 1998-2000.

Three principles underlie all of the new criteria levels:

  1. The criteria are minimum for each level, although a library may exceed one or more of the criteria at a given level;
  2. A library must meet all of the criteria in order to be recognized at a given level; that is, a library may not be recognized if it fails to meet any criterion at a given level even if it meets or exceeds all other criteria at that level;
  3. The fundamental requirement for electronic doorway library recognition at all three EDL levels is access via the Internet to the library's own information resources and to external information resources for both library personnel and users from both inside and outside the library. However, a library may also use locally determined electronic methods to provide access to resources.

 The specifics of the criteria for each of the three EDL levels are as follows:

 Basic 2000 Level

A Basic 2000 Level EDL must meet the criteria for entry-level electronic library services as stated in the following

Infrastructure (Columns 2 and 3)

For infrastructure, a Basic 2000 Level EDL will have at least a dial-up 28.8 Kbps line inside the library building that provides access to the Internet. It is important that the 28.8 Kbps connection be at the library building level since this is the minimum capacity needed for library personnel and users to be able to access and/or download the content required for this level of EDL. A Basic 2000 Level EDL will also use at least a text-based browser (e.g., Lynx).

Content (Columns 4 and 5)

For library personnel and users within the library building, a Basic 2000 Level EDL will provide access to its own bibliographic records and holdings in a local online catalog and/or system/regional union or virtual catalog. Access to the library's records and holdings will be primarily by locally determined electronic methods (e.g., phone lines, LAN), although the Internet will provide a secondary means of access. The library will also provide access to the bibliographic records and holdings of other libraries and to other information resources (e.g., Websites, databases) via the Internet.

From outside the library building, a Basic 2000 Level EDL will provide access via the Internet for all New York State residents from anywhere in the State to the bibliographic records and holdings of the library in a local online catalog and/or system/regional union or virtual catalog. This does not preclude access by locally determined electronic methods in addition to the Internet, e.g., the library may allow dial-up modem access to the library catalog via phone lines or LAN. Users outside the building may obtain Internet access to the library's records and holdings by means of a personal account with an Internet Service Provider or through another library's Internet connection. The need for access to the records and holdings of a Basic 2000 Level EDL by all New York State residents is rooted in Libraries and Technology (1987), the strategic part of the initial statewide library technology plan, which stressed the importance of electronic access to the information resources of all New York libraries by any resident of the State.

Training (Column 6)

The training needed to enable library personnel and users of a Basic 2000 Level EDL to navigate the Internet, access the content required at this level, and obtain other pertinent information-access skills will be introductory (e.g. written hand-outs).

Advanced Level

An Advanced Level EDL must meet the criteria for a Basic 2000 Level EDL (columns 4-6 only) plus the following:

Infrastructure (Columns 2 and 3)

For infrastructure, an Advanced Level EDL will have at least a dedicated 56 Kbps line inside the library building that provides access to the Internet. It is important that the 56 Kbps connection be at the library building level since this is the minimum capacity needed for library personnel and users to be able to access and/or download the content required for this level of EDL. An acceptable alternative to a 56 Kbps connection being inside the library building is to have this connection be outside the library, but to have a higher level connection (e.g., a 10 Mbps LAN) from the library to the 56 Kbps connection. In addition to sufficient telecommunications capacity, an Advanced Level EDL will use at least a graphical browser (e.g., Netscape or Internet Explorer). An EDL at this level or its library system will also provide Z39.50, Version 2 client and server software to enable Z39.50-based access, according to this version of the software: a) by the EDL to records and holdings in other protocol compliant local or union/virtual catalogs regardless of vendor platform, and b) by other protocol compliant automated systems regardless of vendor platform to the EDL's own records and holdings.

Content (Columns 4 and 5)

For library personnel and users within the library building, an Advanced Level EDL will provide access to commercial databases and other appropriate added value resources (e.g., a multi-lingual catalog). These resources may be accessible as menu choices available on the online catalog gateway or through hot links at the library's Website. Materials in commercial databases may be available in the library (e.g., on the local online system or a networked CD-ROM server) or outside the library (e.g., at the vendor's site). Access to these resources in the library will be primarily by locally determined electronic methods (e.g., phone lines, LAN). Remote access to commercial databases will be via the Internet. An Advanced Level EDL has sufficient infrastructure that it will provide access to digitized resources (textual and/or graphical materials in digital format) remotely via the Internet. The library will also provide staff-initiated electronic ordering or delivery of documents available in the library or remotely via the Internet (e.g., full-text documents in electronic databases, interlibrary loan).

From outside the library building, an Advanced Level EDL will provide access via the Internet for all New York State residents from anywhere in the State to non-commercial databases available in the library and to other pertinent added value resources in-house (e.g., a multi-lingual catalog). This does not preclude access by locally determined electronic methods in addition to the Internet, e.g., dial-up modem access or dedicated line. These resources may be accessible as menu choices available on the online catalog gateway or through hot links at the library's Website, and they may be housed, for example, on a local online system or a networked CD-ROM server. An Advanced Level EDL will also provide staff-initiated electronic ordering or delivery of documents available in the library or remotely via the Internet (e.g., full-text documents in electronic databases, interlibrary loan), but this service only needs to be available for registered borrowers of the library. In other words, from outside the library, registered borrowers may submit electronic requests (e.g., via e-mail) for these services and library personnel will act upon such requests.

Training (Column 6)

The training needed to enable library personnel and users of an Advanced Level EDL to navigate the Internet, access the content required at this level, and obtain other pertinent information-access skills will be multi-level. An Advanced Level EDL will provide a variety of classes or course offerings. These classes/course offerings will meet the needs of library personnel and users ranging from those who have no experience with the subject matter through those with considerable experience. Classes/courses may be offered in the library or at another facility.

Leader Level

A Leader Level EDL must meet the criteria for both Basic 2000 and Advanced Level EDLs (columns 4-6 only) plus the following:

Infrastructure (Columns 2 and 3)

For infrastructure, a Leader Level EDL will have at least a dedicated T1 (1.544 Mbps) line inside the library building that provides access to the Internet. It is important that the T1 connection be at the library building level since this is the minimum capacity needed for library personnel and users to be able to access and/or download the content required for this level of EDL. An acceptable alternative to the T1 connection being inside the library building is to have this connection be outside the library, but to have a higher level connection (e.g., a 10 Mbps LAN) from the library to the T1 connection. In addition to sufficient telecommunications capacity, a Leader Level EDL will use a multimedia browser (e.g., Netscape or Internet Explorer). An EDL at this level or its library system will also provide Z39.50, Version 3 client and server software to enable Z39.50-based access, according to this version of the software: a) by the EDL to records and holdings in other protocol compliant local or union/virtual catalogs regardless of vendor platform, and b.) by other protocol compliant automated systems regardless of vendor platform to the EDL's own records and holdings.

Content (Columns 4 and 5)

For library personnel and users within the library building, a Leader Level EDL will provide access to digitized resources (textual and/or graphical materials in digital format) created by the library. A Leader Level EDL has sufficient infrastructure that it will also provide access to multimedia resources (materials which include text, graphics, video, animation, and sound in digital format) both within and outside the library. Locally created digitized content and the library's multimedia resources may be available, for example, on the local online system and/or a networked CD-ROM server. Access to these resources in the library will be primarily by locally determined electronic methods (e.g., phone lines, LAN). Remote access to multimedia resources (e.g., at the vendor's site or in another library) will be via the Internet. An EDL at this level will also provide user-initiated electronic ordering or delivery of documents available in the library or remotely via the Internet (e.g., full-text documents in electronic databases, interlibrary loan). User-initiated requests for remote materials may be submitted either directly to the potential vendor/lending library or to the local library for review and processing before being sent to the vendor/lending library.

From outside the library building, a Leader Level EDL will provide access via the Internet for all New York State residents from anywhere in the State to digitized content created by the library and to multimedia resources in the library. This does not preclude access to these resources by locally determined electronic methods in addition to the Internet, e.g., dedicated line. These resources may be available, for example, on the library's local online system and/or a networked CD-ROM server. A Leader Level EDL will also provide user-initiated electronic ordering or delivery of documents available in the library or remotely via the Internet (e.g., full-text documents in electronic databases, interlibrary loan), but this service only needs to be available for registered borrowers of the library. From outside the library, user-initiated requests for remote materials may be submitted either directly to the potential vendor/lending library or to the local library for review and processing before being sent to the vendor/lending library.

Training (Column 6)

The training needed to enable library personnel and users of a Leader Level EDL to navigate the Internet, access the content required at this level, and obtain other pertinent information-access skills will include technology-based approaches (e.g., videoconferencing).

APPENDIX B: ELECTRONIC DOORWAY LIBRARY INITIATIVE -- SECOND PHASE

The Electronic Doorway Library: Meeting the Information Needs of the People of New York State (1993), the second statewide library technology plan, provided the foundation for undertaking the Electronic Doorway Library Initiative in September, 1994. A total of 2,396 libraries, or 34% of the 7,000 libraries in the State, were recognized as EDLs during the first phase of the initiative, which concluded at the end of 1997. Doorways to Information in the 21st Century: Every New York Library an Electronic Doorway Library (1998) will serve as the basis for the second phase of the EDL Initiative beginning January, 1998. The second phase will be different from, but also similar to, the first phase as described in the following:

Transition from Old (1993) to New (1998) EDL Criteria Levels

Recommendation A1 states that any library recognized as an electronic doorway library January 1, 1998 or thereafter shall provide access via the Internet to its own information resources and to information resources outside the library, according to one of the three electronic doorway library levels described in the EDL Levels Table. For a library that is currently not an electronic doorway library, this new requirement must be met before the library can become an EDL at any of the three levels - Basic 2000, Advanced, or Leader.

However, as also stated in Recommendation A1, libraries that are currently EDLs, as defined in The Electronic Doorway Library (1993), may take up to three years, if necessary, to move from the old (1993) criteria levels to the new (1998) levels. Specifically, EDLs currently at the Basic Level may have until December 31, 2000 to provide access via the Internet to their own information resources and to information resources outside the library; and EDLs currently at the Beyond-Basic Level but which only provide Internet access to information resources outside the library may have until December 31, 2000 to provide Internet access to their own information resources as well.

Although some libraries will be recognized initially at the Advanced or Leader Level, more will be recognized first at the Basic 2000 Level. In fact, the Basic 2000 Level will be pivotal for the next three years because it will include three categories of libraries during this period of time: 1) Basic 2000 Level EDLs recognized January 1, 1998 or thereafter based upon Doorways to Information in the 21st Century (1998); 2) Basic Level EDLs recognized prior to January 1, 1998, based upon The Electronic Doorway Library (1993), which have not yet advanced to one of the new (1998) levels; and 3) Beyond-Basic Level EDLs recognized prior to January 1, 1998, based upon The Electronic Doorway Library (1993), which have not yet advanced to one of the new (1998) levels.

As of December 31, 2000, the only libraries that may continue as Basic 2000 Level EDLs will be those that meet the criteria for this level as stated in Doorways to Information in the 21st Century (1998). All or most of the 1993 Basic and Beyond-Basic EDLs will upgrade their services over the three-year transition period to meet one of the 1998 criteria levels. In the event that some 1993 Basic or Beyond-Basic EDLs do not achieve one of the 1998 criteria levels by December 31, 2000, they will no longer be recognized as electronic doorway libraries as of that date.

Qualifying Procedures

Public library systems, reference and research library resources systems, and school library systems have played a key role in the EDL Initiative since it began in 1994. Library systems have worked with member libraries to determine those which qualify as EDLs. Member libraries were asked to submit an application form for EDL recognition to their library system; and library systems determined which libraries should be recognized, listed the names and levels of these libraries on a System Summary Form, and sent the form to the Division of Library Development (DLD).

Beginning with the second phase of the EDL Initiative, member libraries will no longer be required to submit application forms to their library systems. Instead, a member library may submit a simple statement to its library system requesting recognition at a given EDL level based upon the self-assessment of its electronic services using the EDL Levels Table and Appendix A. However, statements requesting recognition are not even necessary if a library system and its member libraries prefer not to use them. Based upon whatever procedure is decided upon, library systems will determine if member libraries qualify for recognition, as they did in the first phase of the initiative; and they will continue to list the names and levels of member libraries that qualify as EDLs on a System Summary Form and to submit the form to DLD. As a library moves from one level to the next, it must be listed on a new System Summary Form.

Recognition of Electronic Doorway Libraries

Continuing with another procedure from the first phase of the EDL Initiative, certificates and press kits will be available from Library Development for new electronic doorway libraries, i.e., those recognized after January 1, 1998. The certificate will be signed by both the Commissioner of Education and the State Librarian and Assistant Commissioner for Libraries. Included in the press kit will be: an EDL logo; a suggested press release providing information about the library becoming an EDL; a summary version of the third statewide library technology plan in brochure format; and clip art. DLD will send the certificates and press kits to library systems which will forward them to the new EDLs. Only one certificate and press kit will be issued for each electronic doorway library. However, beginning as a new procedure with the second phase of the initiative, a library that advances from one EDL level to the next will receive a letter, signed by the State Librarian and Assistant Commissioner for Libraries, which designates the level the library has attained. Library Development will send these letters to the EDLs with copies to their library systems.

Electronic doorway libraries that are currently at the Basic or Beyond-Basic Level, as defined in the 1993 criteria, will not be issued certificates or press kits when they qualify at one of the new (1998) criteria levels since they will have already received these items when they were recognized during the first phase of the EDL Initiative. However, as a library makes the transition to one of the new EDL levels or advances from one new level to the next, it will receive a letter, signed by the State Librarian and Assistant Commissioner for Libraries, which designates the level the library has attained. Library Development will send these letters to the EDLs with copies to their library systems.

APPENDIX C: GLOSSARY

Association of Research Libraries (ARL) - A not-for-profit membership organization consisting of 120 libraries of North American research institutions. The association, which includes university, public, governmental, and private research libraries, provides a forum for the exchange of ideas, articulates concerns, and serves as an agent for collective action on behalf of member libraries. ARL also forges coalitions, influences information policy development, and supports innovation and operational improvement in research libraries.

BEDS (Basic Educational Data System) - Annual statistical reports submitted to the State Education Department by all elementary and secondary schools in New York State.

Chapter 917 of the Laws of 1990 - Legislation signed into New York State law in 1990 that provided for an estimated increase of $15 million in State aid for library systems and libraries over a three-year period beginning in 1991. As of the 1997-98 fiscal year, the law has not been fully funded in the State budget. However, the Governor has proposed full funding for the 1998-99 State fiscal year in his Executive Budget released January 20, 1998.

Client/Server Technology - An architecture in which the client (e.g., a workstation) is the requesting machine and the server (e.g., a mini computer) is the supplying machine. The client and server are connected with one another via a local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN). The client contains the user interface and may perform some or all of the application processing while the server stores information and responds to queries from the client.

Digitization - The process of converting a paper or film-based document, which may include both text and graphics, into electronic format. Conversion is accomplished through imaging, a process whereby a document is scanned and an electronic representation of the original is produced.

Distance Learning - Distance learning takes place when a teacher and student(s) are separated by physical distance, and technology (e.g., video, voice, data) is used to bridge the gap. This educational approach may provide adults with a second chance at a college degree; reach those disadvantaged by limited time, great distance, or physical disability; update the knowledge base of workers at their places of employment; and, perhaps, eventually change traditional, every day instruction.

Electronic Doorway Library Services Bill - A Regents legislative proposal that would provide $11.4 million annually to library systems and libraries in New York State to assist with the development, maintenance, and upgrading of electronic doorway library services. The proposal was first introduced in 1995. Although the legislation has not passed, the Legislature and Governor provided a $2 million appropriation in both 1996 and 1997.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) - An independent federal government agency that develops and implements policy concerning interstate and international communications via radio, television, wire, cable, and satellite. The FCC protects the public interest by encouraging competition in these communication markets.

GALILEO (Georgia Library Learning Online) - A project sponsored by the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia which provides access for participating institutions to: 1) more than 100 databases that index thousands of periodicals and scholarly journals; 2) over 2000 journal titles in full text; and 3) other resources including business directories, government publications, and an encyclopedia.

HEDS (Higher Education Data System) - Annual statistical reports submitted to the State Education Department by all colleges and universities in New York State.

Hyperlink - An element in an electronic document that links to information either within the same document or in another document. A library user clicks on the hyperlink in order to access the designated information. Hyperlinks are the most essential element in hypertext systems.

INFOhio (Information Network For Ohio) - A statewide cooperative project which has the goal of creating an electronic network to provide access for students, teachers, and library/media specialists in Ohio to resources in school libraries and to electronic databases of government, education, and other information resources.

Information Gateway - A computer that enables data to be sent between incompatible systems and networks by adapting protocols and conventions of one system/network to those of another. In a library setting, an information gateway enables access via computer workstation: a) to electronic information resources within the library either online or on CD ROM, and/or b) to resources outside the library via the Internet or another network. Information gateways may often be accessible as menu choices in an online catalog.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) - An international organization comprised of national standards bodies from over 75 countries. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is the representative to ISO from the United States. The National Information Standards Organization (see below) is designated by ANSI as the official U.S. representative to the work of ISO Technical Committee 46 on Information and Documentation.

Internet - An international network of networks connected by TCP/IP protocols. The Internet may be used for remote login, electronic mail, news, file transfer, and other services. Use of the Internet has increased dramatically in recent years due to the widespread availability of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and the World Wide Web (WWW).

Internet Service Provider (ISP) - A company that offers access to the Internet for a fee. An ISP provides its customers with a software package, username, password, and access phone number or dedicated telecommunications link. Through an ISP, library personnel and users should be able to connect to the Internet, send and receive electronic mail (e-mail) messages, and browse the World Wide Web.

Interoperability - The use of appropriate software to enable computing equipment manufactured by multiple vendors to communicate successfully over a network. For library purposes, interoperability is important for resource sharing and is exemplified by two standards: Z39.50 and ISO 10160 and 10161. Interoperability is sometimes referred to as being seamless because of the capability of one system to communicate with other systems using its own command language.

ISO 10160 and 10161 - A two-part standard/protocol, approved by the International Organization for Standardization (see above), which permits system-to-system exchange of interlibrary loan messages. The protocol allows library users or personnel, working with the command language of the local (or library system's) automated system, to transmit borrowing and lending messages among other protocol compliant interlibrary loan/document delivery systems, regardless of vendor platform. The protocol is usually based upon client/server technology (see above).

License (for Database) - An agreement or contract between a library, or group of libraries, and a vendor regarding access to an electronic database(s). Since licenses usually specify the location(s) covered by the agreement/contract, they are often called site licenses. Access may be restricted to in-house library users or expanded to include remote users.

Listserv - A service which: 1) provides access to a specific set of files for participants on its mailing list; 2) distributes messages among participants which may lead to electronic conferences; and 3) allows for the archiving of files and messages which may be searched and retrieved.

Local Area Network (LAN) - A computer network that spans a small area, e.g., a single building or group of buildings. LANs are capable of transmitting data at high (or very high) rates of speed (e.g., 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps). They not only connect workstations and personal computers but also enable the sharing of data and devices (e.g., printers).

MARC (Machine-Readable Cataloging) or USMARC - A standard, developed by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO), which deals with communication formats for bibliographic data. MARC, officially NISO Standard Z39.2, specifically defines structure and content of both bibliographic and authority records as well as local library holdings.

Multimedia - The integration of text, graphics, video, animation, and sound in digital format by means of computer. Multimedia files tend to be large and, therefore, require considerable network transmission capacity (bandwidth).

National Information Standards Organization (NISO) - A nonprofit standards developer accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). NISO's voting members and other supporters include representatives from libraries, publishers, and the information industry.

New York State Comprehensive Research Libraries (NYCRL) - Eleven libraries in New York State which, among other things, work collaboratively to ensure preservation of collections and provide access to materials in digital format. The purposes of this endeavor are to: enable public access to resources in New York State; promote the economical and efficient delivery of research resources to the people of the State; and contribute to the national effort to develop digital libraries. Members of NYCRL include: Columbia University; Cornell University; The New York Public Library; The New York State Library; New York University; the State Universities of New York at Albany, Binghamton, Buffalo, and Stony Brook; Syracuse University; and the University of Rochester.

New York State Library - The New York State Library provides library services for the government and people of the State. The Research Library, one of the State Library's two divisions, is the only state agency library which is a member of the Association of Research Libraries (see above). The Division of Library Development, working in partnership with 74 library systems, plays a leadership role in enabling the provision of cost effective, modern library services for New Yorkers who use the 7,000 academic, public, school, and special libraries in the State.

OhioLink - A statewide electronic network, serving a consortium of 43 university and college libraries and the State Library of Ohio, which provides the following for its members: integrated local systems, union catalog, online borrowing system, research databases, and document delivery services. The network enables access for over 3,400 simultaneous users at 90 locations and serves more than 500,000 students, faculty, and staff.

Online Catalog - Bibliographic records - organized by author, title, subject, keyword, and possibly other access points - which are searchable on a computer system in a real-time communications environment.

OPLIN (Ohio Public Library Information Network) - A statewide electronic network that serves the public libraries and citizens of Ohio. The network provides access to numerous electronic resources and the Internet for users of the State's 250 public libraries.

Public Service Commission (PSC) - The New York State Commission that regulates, sets rates for, and ensures adequate service by companies operating in the State in the following areas: telecommunications, cable, electric, gas, steam, and water.

Sailor - A project of the Maryland Library Community (academic, public, school, and special libraries) which provides citizens of the State with electronic access to local and state information and to the wealth of resources on the Internet. Citizens may obtain toll-free access to the Sailor network from libraries, other public places, homes and work places.

Ubiquitous Record - A bibliographic record (and its holdings statement) which is listed in at least one electronic catalog or utility. Ubiquitous records are considered to be common and may, therefore, appear many times in several catalogs or utilities.

Union Catalog - Combined bibliographic records of two or more libraries in electronic format, usually sharing the same main entry but with separate holdings statements.

Unique Record - A bibliographic record which is not listed in any electronic catalog or utility. The addition of such a record (and its holdings statement) to a catalog or utility would establish it in machine-readable form for the first time. For the purpose of providing State or Federal funding for the conversion of unique records to machine-readable form, the Division of Library Development requires that the uniqueness of the records be verified in a designated sampling database (e.g., OCLC).

Virtual Catalog - A catalog which conceptually serves as a union catalog (see above), but which physically consists of several catalogs. A virtual catalog may include the local catalogs of individual libraries, union catalogs, and special catalogs for libraries with records and holdings that are not accessible in local or union catalogs. The various physical catalogs that make up a virtual catalog are usually Z39.50 compliant (see below).

Website - A server that stores information which is accessible via the World Wide Web (see below). The first page of a Website, called the Home Page, serves as the table of contents or main menu of the Website.

Wide Area Network (WAN) - A computer network that covers a large geographic area. At the minimum, a WAN consists of two or more LANs, or local area networks (see above), although it may be considerably larger than this. The transmission of information over a WAN may take place over dial-up or leased lines or via satellite. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet.

Workstation - A computer which provides access to a library's catalog and/or other electronic resources. A workstation may be connected to a Local Area Network (LAN) or Wide Area Network (WAN) which, in turn, may provide access to the Internet.

World Wide Web (WWW) - A global network of information resources that are available primarily in HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) and accessible at thousands of Websites (see above) on the Internet.

Z39.50 - A standard/protocol, developed by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO), which allows library users or personnel, working with the command language of the local (or library system's) automated system, to transmit information retrieval requests to other protocol compliant automated systems, regardless of vendor platform. The Z39.50 protocol is based upon client/server technology (see above).

APPENDIX D: BACKGROUND OF ELECTRONIC DOORWAY LIBRARY CONCEPT, STRATEGY, AND INITIATIVE

The electronic doorway library (EDL) concept first appeared in Technology and Access: The Electronic Doorway Library (1989), the operational part of the initial statewide library technology plan. The key recommendation in the plan said that every library in New York State, regardless of size, type, or location, should become an electronic doorway library. An electronic doorway library is an excellent library enhanced and transformed by the use of computer and telecommunications technology to provide electronic services for users.

A combination of factors contributed to the EDL strategy being selected for the statewide technology initiative in New York. Of primary importance was the goal of providing the opportunity for all types of libraries - academic, public, school, special - to be included in the technology initiative from the outset. The large number of libraries in New York, some 7,000, suggested that a strategy which featured the electronic services of individual libraries, operating within a statewide network of libraries, would most readily achieve this goal without requiring a substantial amount of new funding. When considering the importance of including all types of libraries from the earliest stage of the initiative, the large number of libraries in the State, and the financial implications of trying to balance these two factors, the electronic doorway library approach was considered to be best for New York.

Another factor in the decision to adopt the EDL strategy was that New York has a long history of regional and system flexibility within the framework of statewide library cooperation. Regions and systems may contribute to statewide library objectives in a variety of ways. This flexibility is based upon the size, diversity, and complexity of the State. The 7,000 libraries are organized into 74 library systems (23 public library systems, 42 school library systems, and 9 reference and research library resources systems). New York has a population of 18,000,000. Both New York City and Long Island are larger in population than many states, but New York State also has the fourth largest rural population in the nation.

In addition to including all types of libraries from the beginning of the initiative, the electronic doorway library strategy built upon the tradition of regional and system flexibility and, more specifically, its impact on local libraries. Based upon this tradition, State and Federal funding for technology purposes is distributed by the Division of Library Development primarily to systems, which provide electronic services for member libraries. By emphasizing library technology at the local level, the EDL approach also directly relates to legislators, community leaders, and others from whom support is needed to have this initiative continue.

The Electronic Doorway Library: Meeting the Information Needs of the People of New York State, the second statewide library technology plan which was issued in 1993, further developed the electronic doorway library concept introduced in the original plan. Among other things, The Electronic Doorway Library served as the basis both for launching the EDL Initiative in 1994 to determine how many electronic doorway libraries already existed in New York State and for introducing the $11.4 million Electronic Doorway Library Services Bill in 1995.

These major implementation steps were followed, in turn, by: a 1995 consultant report, Electronic Doorway Libraries in New York: A Report with Recommendations by Louella V. Wetherbee, which assessed and made recommendations about the EDL strategy and initiative; Electronic Doorway Libraries Recognized as of June 30, 1995, which listed the 1,359 libraries established as electronic doorway libraries in the first year of the EDL Initiative; and the 1996 Report of the Electronic Doorway Library Working Group to Library Development, which provided guidance about how to proceed with the development of the third statewide library technology plan, thereby, setting the stage for the work of the Electronic Doorway Library Action Committee.

APPENDIX E: BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR THIRD STATEWIDE LIBRARY TECHNOLOGY PLAN

(Arranged in Reverse Chronological Order)

"State of the State Reports: Statewide Library Automation, Connectivity, and Resource Access Initiatives" in Library Hi Tech, vol. 14, number 2-3, issue #54-55, 1996.

Technology and Training for Libraries in Transition: A Report to the New York State EducationDepartment Office of Technology Policy Analysis and Development. Albany: New York Library Association, New York Library Association Ad Hoc Committee on Librarians' Training Needs, March, 1996.

Report of Electronic Doorway Library Working Group to Library Development. Albany: New York State Library, Division of Library Development, January, 1996.

Electronic Doorway Libraries Recognized as of June 30, 1995. Albany: New York State Library, Division of Library Development, September, 1995.

Electronic Doorway Libraries in New York: A Report with Recommendations. Prepared by Louella V. Wetherbee. Dallas: Consultant's Report, May, 1995.

Electronic Doorway Libraries: Meeting the Information Needs of All New Yorkers (Summary Brochure). Albany: The University of the State of New York, The State Education Department, New York State Library, Division of Library Development, 1994.

The Electronic Doorway Library: Meeting the Information Needs of the People of New YorkState. Albany: The University of the State of New York, The State Education Department, New York State Library, Division of Library Development, 1993.

Technology and Access: The Electronic Doorway Library. Albany: The University of the State of New York, The State Education Department, New York State Library, Division of Library Development, 1989.

Libraries and Technology: A Strategic Plan for the Use of Advanced Technologies for Library Resource Sharing in New York State. Albany: The University of the State of New York, The State Education Department, New York State Library, Division of Library Development, 1987.

APPENDIX F: THE ELECTRONIC DOORWAY LIBRARY ACTION COMMITTEE

Chair of the Committee:

Dottie Hiebing, Executive Director, New York Metropolitan Reference & Research Library Agency, Inc.

Members:

Thomas Bindeman, Assistant Director, Nioga Library System

Laurie C. Brooks, Director, Tompkins-Seneca-Tioga BOCES School Library System

Charles Devoe, Associate in Higher Education, Office of Technology Policy, New York State Education Department

Marilyn E. Douglas, Library Development Specialist I, Division of Library Development , New York State Library

Randall Ericson, Associate University Librarian for Technical and Automated Services, Syracuse University

Liz Lane, Director, Research Library, New York State Library

Kevin McCoy, Media Librarian, Suffolk County Community College-Ammerman Campus Library

Charles McMorran, Chief, Technical Services Department, Queens Borough Public Library 

Richard Panz, Director, Rochester Public Library and Monroe County Library System

Lynn Reuss, Associate in Educational Improvement Services, Office of Elementary, Middle, Secondary, and Continuing Education, New York State Education Department

Jean K. Sheviak, Systems Librarian, Union College

Frederick E. Smith, Library Development Specialist II, Division of Library Development, New York State Library

Rocco A. Staino, Director, Keefe Library, North Salem Middle/High School

D.J. Stern, Director, Woodstock Public Library District

Regina Waite-Platt, Senior High Librarian, Ogdensburg City School District

Facilitator

Donna Meixner, Meixner Associates, Delmar, New York


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Last Updated: January 5, 2012