Diversity in Librarianship Bibliography
Diversity in Librarianship with an emphasis on the New York State Area
July 31, 2007
This report also available in .PDF format .
This bibliography was developed by Ulia Gosart, an Associate of REAP Change Consultants, for the New York State Library Making It REAL! grant project. It is based on the “Diversity Recruitment” bibliography, completed by Dr. Clara M. Chu in 2005. The authors thank Samuel Cook for his invaluable assistance in editing and formatting this bibliography.
This bibliography covers the topic of Diversity in Librarianship.
The first section of this bibliography features articles in which diversity is discussed as a theoretical framework, applicable to the library and information science (LIS) setting. Diversity is represented as a concept, an institutional practice, and an ideological strategy. Statistical reports provide an estimate of diversity in American library employment, and a picture of ethnic diversity in New York State.
The second section of this bibliography concentrates on diversity recruitment. Diversity recruitment in LIS literature covers recruitment into the profession and into LIS education programs. It addresses the recruitment of culturally, ethnically, and racially diverse individuals or, more broadly, those wishing to serve a culturally diverse community. The literature also ranges from “how-to” guides, descriptions of best practices, research and historical status of diversity recruitment in the LIS field, and recruitment efforts that are focused on individuals from a young age to those who are pursuing second careers, which may be conducted by LIS students, professionals, educators and stakeholders. The literature addressing recruitment into the paraprofessional or doctoral ranks is not covered in this overview.
The third section includes literature that uses diversity as a strategy to create and implement library services. The focus of this section is on community libraries, school libraries, academic libraries, and library schools in the New York State area.The identified literature is organized by type of information. Items in bold are highly recommended because of quality of treatise or comprehensiveness. This list of resources was compiled as a result of a search of databases, the Internet, bibliographies contained within publications, and resources the authors knew about through their own research.
Organization of WorkI. Diversity in LIS
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[NOTE: For the theoretical framework for understanding the impact of diversity on public organizations, see: Selden. S., Selden. F. (2001). Rethinking diversity in public organizations for the 21st century: Moving toward a multicultural model. In Administration & Society, 33(3), pp. 303-329; and Thomas, D., Ely, F. (1996). Making differences matter: A new paradigm for managing diversity. In Harvard Business Review, 74(5), pp. 79-90.]
ALA. (1998). Diversity. In ALA key action areas. Retrieved July 8, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/ourassociation/governingdocs/keyactionareas/keyactionareas.htm
Diversity is defined as “a fundamental value of the association,” reflected in the ALA commitment to recruit “people of color and people with disabilities,” and to promote development of collections and services to all populations.
ALA. (2003). The diversity vision. In ALA action and inclusion plan. Retrieved July 8, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/diversity/diversityactionb/ALA_Diversity_Action_and_Inclusion_Plan.pdf
Diversity is recognized as a “multitude of differences,” which include race, color, creed, religion, gender, disability, national origin, education, language origin, geographical and regional background, communication and learning style, personal lifestyle, and sexual orientation. This framework of diversity, as applicable to library institutions and services, requires respect, appreciation, equality, and inclusion as core values of the profession.
Davis, D., & Hall, T. (2007). Diversity counts report of ALA Office for Research and Statistics. Retrieved July 13, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/ors/diversitycounts/DiversityCounts_rev07.pdf
This report provides estimates of the employment in the library profession in the United States in relation to age, ethnic background, and gender for academic, K-12, public, hospital, and legal libraries in the United States.
IFLA Library Services to Multicultural Populations Section. (1998). Ethnic, linguistic and cultural diversity. In Multicultural communities guidelines for library services. Retrieved July 8, 2007, from http://www.ifla.org/VII/s32/pub/guide-e.htm
Diversity is defined as “ethnic, linguistic and cultural composition of the countries of the world,” where special populations are immigrants, refugees, migrant workers, national minorities (such as indigenous groups, or those with distinct cultural, ethnic, and linguistic identities different from the dominant culture), and global society, where all cultures are represented.
Majesky-Pullmann, O. (2007). NewYork: A statistical snapshot. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 24 (1).
Statistical report on ethnic diversity and educational achievements of people in New York State.
New York State Library. (2007). Libraries and library systems in New York State. Retrieved July 19, 2007, from http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/libdev/libs/
This site provides information about the library system in New York State, including statistical comparison of different libraries and tools to employ for more research (Bibliostat Connect).
School of Information Studies, Syracuse University. (2007). Diversity. In Vision and values. Retrieved July 13, 2007, from http://ischool.syr.edu/about/mission.asp
“We are intellectually diverse. Complex problems require multidimensional and interdisciplinary analysis and solutions. The school fosters a multiplicity of ‘voices’ addressing the important areas of teaching and research in the information field. The school seeks faculty from many related disciplines who respect a diversity of opinion and perspective, and thrive on the tension of discussion and debate.”
Winson, M. (Ed.). (1999). Managing multiculturalism and diversity in the library: principles and issues for administrators. New York: Haworth Press.
Diversity in practice, discussed by twelve library practitioners. Diversity is presented from the aspects of civil rights, equality of access to services and information, management, communication, diversity dialogue groups, racism, and barriers to implementation of diversity in service.
The following resources provide information on how to recruit and best practices for diversity recruitment in LIS or LIS recruitment in general. These resources are useful for those who wish to undertake diversity recruitment. In short, the guidance, resources, and information exist, and major expenditures are not required, so the only reason to not recruit for diversity is a lack of commitment. Reese and Hawkins (1999) is still the key publication on diversity recruitment.
ALA Office for Diversity. (2005). The necessary measure. Retrieved July 8, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/diversity/diversityactionb/The_Necessary_Measure_CUWL.ppt
A toolkit on opportunities to develop staff diversity in academic libraries. Developed by the Council of the University of Wisconsin Libraries.
ALA Office for Diversity. (2006). Office for Diversity. Retrieved July 24, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/diversity/.
Includes information on recruitment for diversity information (http://www.ala.org/ala/diversity/divrecruitment/recruitmentdiversity.htm), general recruitment information, (http://www.ala.org/ala/education/recruitmentb/recruitment.htm), and resources for prospective graduate students in Library and Information Studies (http://www.ala.org/ala/diversity/studentresources/studentresources.htm).
American Association of School Librarians. (2007). Recruitment ideas. Retrieved July 24, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/aasl/aasleducation/recruitmentlib/recruitideas/recruitmentideas.htm
Central Jersey Regional Library Cooperative. (2007). Become a librarian! ()Retrieved July 24, 2007 from http://www.becomealibrarian.org/
"Become a Librarian!" brochures can also be obtained from https://cs.ala.org/@yourlibrary/njbrochures.cfm
The Diversity Librarians' Network
The Diversity Librarians’ Network. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2007 from http://www.lib.utk.edu/residents/dln/
Bright, K., Chaudhuri, J. & Mundava, M. (2005). The Diversity Librarians' Network: Connecting, sharing, succeeding! [Electronic Version]. Versed, May - June 2005, 14. Retrieved July 24, 2007 from http://www.ala.org/ala/diversity/versed/versedbackissues/may2005abcd/Versed_AC05_Web.pdf
Engel, Debra. (2007). Recruitment and retention: Encourage students to consider careers in libraries. Retrieved July 25, 2007 from http://www.rose.edu/faculty/ssaulmon/r&r.htm
Resources about Librarian Recruitment and Retention, developed by Debra Engel for Navigating the Information Future Committee, Oklahoma Library Association Annual Conference, March 2003. http://www.rose.edu/faculty/ssaulmon/Debraresources.htm
These resources developed by Engel are helpful for understanding LIS recruitment and retention in general.
Johnson, G. & Mayfield, T.L. (2005). Librarianship as a career! Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.csulb.edu/library/subj/library_careers/
KY Virtual Library. (2005). KLDivERS: Kentucky Libraries Diversity Education, Recruitment, and Support. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.kyvl.org/html/profession/kldivers.shtml
“KLDivERS is a place for librarians, library employees, and people interested in the information profession. You will find projects, recruitment opportunities such as events and conferences, scholarship and grant sources, education opportunities, and links to other resources of interest to Kentuckians in the library science field.”
LAMA. (n.d.). The library's challenge: How to recruit and retain high performing employees. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/lama/lamaprofdev/lamaregionalinst/lamareginstlist/libraryschallenge.htm
Medical Library Association. (20070). Careers. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.mlanet.org/career/index.html
NYLINK. (2003). New York librarian and institution honored with Association of College and Research Libraries top awards [Electronic version]. Connection, 5 (1). Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://nylink.org/publications/nc/pdf/NCspr03.pdf
Nylink is an association of libraries, library systems, and cultural heritage organizations, with the main publication being Connection. This article talks about the Newman Library at Baruch College http://newman.baruch.cuny.edu/) and the award the staff received from ACRL for supporting “diversity of cultures, languages, and perspectives of the population it serves.”
Penn State University Libraries. (2004). A framework to foster diversity in Penn State: University Libraries strategic plan 2004-2009. Retrieved July 5, 2007, from http://www.equity.psu.edu/framework/updates_04_09/pdf/libraries_04_09rev.pdf
Public Library Association. (n.d.). Public librarian recruitment. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/pla/projects/publiclibrecruit/publiclibrarian.htm
Reese, G. L. (2005). Man of the people: East Cleveland’s Greg L. Reese weighs in on library recruitment, curriculum reform and the working system [Electronic version]. Versed, June 2005, 10-13. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/diversity/versed/versedbackissues/may2005abcd/Versed_AC05_Web.pdf
Reese, G. L. & Hawkins, E. L. (1999). Stop talking start doing! Attracting people of color to the library profession. Chicago: ALA.
Searing, S. & Gray, C. (2003). Recruiting new professionals to the field. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from, http://clips.lis.uiuc.edu/2003_02.html
University Libraries of Notre Dame. (2006). Diversity program – University Libraries and Kresge Law Library. Retrieved July 24, 2007 from http://www.library.nd.edu/diversity/index.shtml
Includes the Project to Recruit the Next Generation of Librarians (http://www.library.nd.edu/diversity/summer/imls/index.shtml)
U.S. Department of Labor. (2006). Archivists, curators, and museum technicians. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://stats.bls.gov/oco/ocos065.htm
U.S. Department of Labor. (2006). Librarians. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://stats.bls.gov/oco/ocos068.htm
These publications are mostly research articles, including historical or status of the field surveys with regard to diversity recruitment. The Adkins and Espinal (2004) article concludes with “7 Strategies To Draw Qualified Students of Color into the Profession” (see Appendix of this document), which are tried and effective strategies to recruit into the field, taking into account educational and training requirements. The first strategy is scholarships. This strategy is a hallmark of the Making It REAL! project, which has also been found to be effective for overall recruitment, regardless of diversity. It should be noted that recruitment only addresses the beginning of one’s professional path, thus recruitment will not really have been successful without taking into account retention, placement, and promotion.
Abdullahi, I. (1992). Recruitment and mentoring of minority-students. Journal of Education For Library And Information Science, 33(4), 307-310.
Adkins, D., Espinal, I. (2004). The diversity mandate [Electronic Version]. Library Journal, April 15, 2004. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA408334.html?display=searchResults&text=di
ALA Office for Diversity. (2006). Report confirms need for continued diversityefforts. American Libraries 37, 10 (4).
Report on the national study of gender, race, and age in the library profession, conducted by the ALA Office for Diversity together with the Decision Demographics firm. The study demonstrated a slow growth of the number of representatives of racial and ethnic minorities in the profession; yet, these numbers are still comparatively small.
Alire, C. (1996). Recruitment and retention of librarians of color. In Reed, S. G. (Ed.), Creating the future: Essays on librarianship, (pp.126-143). Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc.
Alire, C. (2001). Diversity and leadership: The color of leadership. Journal of Library Administration, 32 (3/4),95-109.
Focuses on ethnic and racial diversity in librarianship. Discusses the role leadership plays in the emergence of library leaders of color, and the need for minority leaders.
Asher, C., Alexander, J. (2006). The library internship and expo as a pathway to diversity: A case study. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 47 (1).
A case study that highlights the need to develop undergraduate internships that enable low-income students and representatives of ethnic minorities to enter the library profession. Internships are presented as a strategy to insure ethnic diversity in the libraries.
Berwind, A., Buchanan, L. (1992). Infusing diversity into library instruction throughout the undergraduate curriculum. Proceedings from the Sixth National Conference of the Association of College & Research Libraries, Salt Lake City, UT (USA), 12-14 Apr 1992.
Brown, L. B.(1992). Student admission and multicultural recruitment. Journal of Library Administration, 16 (1-2), 109-22.
Buttlar, L., & Caynon, W. (1992). Recruitment of librarians into the profession - the minority perspective. Library & Information Science Research, 14(3), 259-280.
Garces, V. (1998). The recruitment of minority librarians: A bibliography of the literature, 1990-1998. Law Library Journal, 90(4), 603-614.
Josey, E. (1993). The challenges of cultural diversity in the recruitment of faculty and students from diverse backgrounds. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 34(4), 302-11.
Kim, K., Sin, J. (2006). Recruiting and retaining students of color for LIS schools: Perspectives from librarians. Proceedings of the ALISE Annual Conference, January 16-19, 2006, San Antonio, Taxes. Abstract available online at http://www.alise.org/conferences/2006_Conference/juried_paper_abstracts.html
Knowles, E. (1990). How to attract ethnic minorities to the profession. Special Libraries, 81, 141-145.
Kuchi, T., Bowering, L., & Tama-Bartels, S. (2004). Librarians without borders: Reaching out to students at a campus center. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 43 (4),310-317.
McCook, K., Geist, P. (1993). Diversity deferred: Where are the minority librarians? The numbers tell the story. Library Journal, 118 (18),35-38.
McCook, K. & Lippincott, K. (Eds.). (1997). Planning for a diverse workforce in library and information science professions. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, School of Library and Information Science, Research Group.
Penn State University Libraries. (1998). Team # 286 : Library Faculty/Staff Recruitment and Retention Diversity Team. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.psu.edu/president/pia/database/teams/team0286.htm
Robles, P. (1998). Recruiting the minority librarian: The secret to increasing the numbers. C&RL News, 59, 779-780.
Webster, L. (2002). The missing minority presence--minorities, technology, and recruitment to top ranked American library association information and library science programs. UNC-Chapel Hill thesis.
Winston, M. (1998). The role of recruitment in achieving goals related to diversity. College & Research Libraries, 59(3), 240-247.
These articles provide an understanding of LIS diversity issues that may have an impact on recruitment. Topics that may require particular attention and further research include workplace discrimination, marketing, curriculum, diversity training and other aspects that would encompass a holistic approach to diversity in LIS.
Brewer, J. (1997). Post-master's residency programs: Enhancing the development of new professionals and minority recruitment in academic and research libraries. College & Research Libraries, 58(6), 528-537.
Coleman, S. (2000). On combating racism in academic librarianship [Electronic Version]. Information for Social Change, 11. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.libr.org/ISC/articles/11-Coleman.html
Freiband, S. (1992). Multicultural issues and concerns in library education. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 33, 287-294.
Gollop, C. (1999). Library and information science education: Preparing librarians for a multicultural society. College & Research Libraries, 60(4), 385-395.
Jones, R., McGinn, H., Tarín, P. (2005). Myths, missionary expeditions, and mobilizing the profession [Electronic Version]. Versed, June 2005, 2-4, 13. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/diversity/versed/versedbackissues/may2005abcd/Versed_AC05_Web.pdf
Lance, K. (2005). Racial and ethnic diversity of U.S. library workers. American Libraries, 36(5), 41-43.
Lipsey, K., Prendergast, N. (2002, April). Another dimension of diversity: Interactions among minority librarians [Electronic Version]. Paper presented at the Diversity: Building a Strategic Future conference, Iowa City, IA. Retrieved July 20, 2007, from http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/wwwarchive/cicdiversity/lipsey.doc
Neely, T., Abif, K. (1996). In our own voices: The changing face of librarianship. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
Pelayo, S. (2004). A vital necessity: Advancing ethnic and racial diversity in library schools [Electronic Version]. Info Career Trends, July 2004. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.lisjobs.com/newsletter/archives/jul04spelayo.htm
Squire, J. (1991). Job satisfaction and the ethnic minority librarian. Library Administration and Management, 5 (4),194-203.
St. Lifer, E., Nelson, C. (1997). Unequal opportunities: Race does matter [Electronic Version]. Library Journal, 42. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.libraries.psu.edu/admin/diversity/conf/unequal.htm
Turock, B. (2003). Developing diverse professional leaders. New Library World, 11/12, 491-498.
Focuses on development of diverse professional leaders and a diverse workforce in American libraries, as a response to the current [to 2003], insufficient numbers of diverse students in the LIS field, while the numbers of ethnic and racial minorities in the US are predicted to grow.
Winston, M. (2001). Communication and teaching: education about diversity in the LIS classroom. Journal of Library Administration, 33 (3/4), 199-212.
Since scholarships have been found to be the key to successful recruitment and it is a major strategy in the Making It REAL! Project, the following is a list of scholarships particularly targeted at culturally diverse LIS student.
American Library Association (ALA) Scholarships http://www.ala.org/work/awards/scholars.html
Association of Research Libraries. Initiative to Recruit a Diverse Workforce. http://www.arl.org/diversity/init/
Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies (ASCLA) Century Scholarship http://www.ala.org/ascla/centuryscholarship.html
Black Caucus of the American Library Association
- E.J. Josey Scholarship http://www.bcala.org/awards/josey.htm
California Librarians Black Caucus Scholarships http://www.clbc.org/scholar.html
- Louise Jane Moses - Agnes Davis Memorial Scholarship
- Eunice J. H. Parker Scholarship Award
California Library Association Scholarship For Minority Students In Memory Of Edna Yelland http://www.cla-net.org/awards/
Chinese American Librarians Association Scholarships http://www.cala-web.org/
- Sheila Suen Lai Scholarship of Library and Information Science
- C.C. Seetoo/CALA Conference Travel Scholarship
Diversity and Minority Scholarships of the School of Information Studies of Syracuse University http://ischool.syr.edu/prospective/graduate/DiversityAwards.asp
LITA/LSSI Minority Scholarship in Library and Information Technology http://www.ala.org/Template.cfm?Section=scholarships&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=135349#lssi
LITA/OCLC Minority Scholarship in Library and Information Technology http://www.ala.org/Template.cfm?Section=scholarships&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=135349#oclc
Medical Library Association Minority Scholarship http://www.mlanet.org/awards/grants/index.html
- Scholarship for Minority Students
- MLA/NLM Spectrum Scholarship
New York State Library. Making It REAL! Recruitment, Education, And Learning: Creating a New Generation of Librarians to Serve All New Yorkers. http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/libdev/imls/index.html
REFORMA (National Association to Promote Library and Information Services to Latinos and the Spanish-Speaking) Scholarship http://www.reforma.org/scholarship2007.htm
- Orange County Chapter (California) Scholarship.http://reformaoc.org/scholarships2.htm Contact: Barbara Miller
Spectrum Initiative Scholarship, American Library Association (ALA).
ALA SPECTRUM Scholars at UCLA. http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/chu/drmc/activities.html#spectrum
The following examples are policies/plans that address diversity in libraries. The existence of these documents is critical in recruitment because they demonstrate an institutional commitment to diversity (e.g., workforce, collections, services, etc.). It moves an organization from talking to actually acting. It is a roadmap to success or a document of accountability/transparency regarding library diversity. Reinette Jones is part of KLDivERS: Kentucky Libraries Diversity Education, Recruitment, and Support (http://www.kyvl.org/html/profession/kldivers.shtml), and she is working on identifying libraries that have diversity plans.
ALA (1998). ALA key action areas. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from, http://www.ala.org/ala/ourassociation/governingdocs/keyactionareas/keyactionareas.htm
In 1998, ALA voted to commit to the seven key action areas, which state that diversity is a “fundamental value of the association… reflected in recruiting people of color… people with disabilities… and promotion of library collections and services to all.”
Auburn University Library. (n.d.). Library faculty diversity plan. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.lib.auburn.edu/diversity.html
California State University, Long Beach Library. (1999). Policy on diversity and affirmative action. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.csulb.edu/library/guide/diversity.html
University of California Ethnic Studies Librarians Network. (n.d.) Recruitment advancement and retention. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://library.ucsc.edu/esln/recruit.html
Diversity recruitment efforts may be done individually or may be institutionalized through organizational structure and recognition. Thus, in addition to or without a diversity policy/plan, a library or information institution’s establishment of a diversity committee again demonstrates an institutional commitment to diversity (e.g., workforce, curriculum, recruitment, mentoring, etc.). It creates an organizational staff and stakeholders who wish to addresses diversity issues in the organization and it is recognized by the administration and has been given institutional priority as well as legitimacy.
Diversity Recruitment and Mentoring Committee, UCLA Department of Information Studies http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/chu/drmc/
UCLA Library Committee on Diversity http://www.library.ucla.edu/admin/staffserv/commtts/lcd/lcd.htm
The following resources provide information on best practices, guides, and projects to support diversity in library services. Links to online portals that serve needs of special populations are also included.
ALA. (2007). Diversity and outreach fair. Retrieved July 5, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/olos/olosprograms/diversityfair/diversityfair.htm
ALA’s Diversity and Outreach Fair page, including historical background for the event. Contains links to the abstracts and contact information from the previous years Fairs, back to 1998.
ALA Committee on Rural, Native, and Tribal Libraries of All Kinds. (n.d.). Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/olos/committeeonruralnativeandtriballibrariesofallkinds/ruralnative.htm
The official website of the ALA Committee on Rural, Native, and Tribal Libraries of All Kinds. Include links to publications, best practices, news, conferences, discussion lists, and more.
ALA Office for Diversity. (2007). Diversity articles and publications. Retrieved July 8, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/diversity/articlesandpubs/diversityarticles.htm
An annotated bibliography of sources that highlights diversity in library services and the library profession.
Special attention: Kuharets, I., Cahalan, B., Gitner, F. (Eds.). (2001). Bridging Cultures: Ethnic Services in the Libraries of New York State. Albany, NY: New York Library Association, Ethnic Services Round Table.
Thirty-six essays on serving multicultural populations in New York State libraries, written by library practitioners.
Bagdasar, N. (2005). Community analysis and knowledge management [Electronic Verson]. WebJunction, 11252. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://webjunction.org/do/DisplayContent?id=11252
Discussion of community analysis as a tool for librarians to best tailor library services to local needs, with a particular stress on Arab communities of New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Detroit, and Washington, D.C.
Bienvenidos a Queens! An online gateway to information in Spanish for newcomers. (2005). Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.bienvenidosaqueens.org/
An online service of the Queens Borough Public Library in New York that provides access to information in Spanish. Links to about 100 agencies in the New York City area for the Spanish-speaking population. Topics include immigration, health, housing, ESL classes, education, employment, and more.
Brey-Casiano, C. (2005). Diversity: The heart of the profession. American Libraries, 36 (3).
Discussion of the project “Many Voices, One Nation” under the auspices of the ALA (http://www.ala.org/ala/ourassociation/governanceb/executiveboard/breycasiano/manyvoices.htm). The initiative promotes diversity by emphasizing voices of diverse authors in American literature.
Cuesta, J. McGovern, G. (2003). Getting ready to market the library to culturally diverse communities [Electronic Version]. Alki: The Washington Library Association Journal, March 1, 2002. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from WebJunction, 1526, from http://webjunction.org/do/DisplayContent?id=1526
“A step-by-step recipe for reaching out to immigrant communities and others.” Includes a checklist for libraries to evaluate their services to immigrant communities and ethnic and cultural minorities.
Dasgupta, A. (2005). Developing an international children's library collection: Issues and laudable suggestions [Electronic Version]. WebJunction, 12111. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://webjunction.org/do/DisplayContent?id=12111
Strategies and practical implications of developing an internationally oriented children’s collection. Provides links to helpful sites and resources.
Derbentli, B. (n.d.). Profile. Retrieved July 13, 2007, from http://www.librarycareersny.org/profiles/pages/betty-ann-derbentli.cfm
Profile of a Making It REAL! recipient, with an emphasis on her own experience of implementing cultural diversity in libraries through storytelling.
Elturk, G. (2003). Diversity and cultural competency [Electronic Version]. WebJunction, 1525. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://webjunction.org/do/DisplayContent?id=1525
Outreach librarian shares her thoughts on cultural competency as a principle for applying diverse populations’ needs to the services, policies, and general function of the library institution. Special attention is given to the issue of working with tribal communities.
firstfind.info: A Virtual Library in Plain English. (n.d.). Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.firstfind.info/
A virtual library of almost 700 websites with annotations for adults with limited English skills. Includes health information, immigration services, ESL class locations, and more. Created by the cooperative efforts of the ALA Office for Literacy and Outreach Services of ALA, Westchester Library System, Brooklyn Public Library, New York Public Library, and Queens Borough Public Library.
Folts, A. (2007). Speck helps children celebrate Chinese New Year At library [Electronic Version]. Oswego Daily News, February 19, 2007. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://oswegodailynews.com/index.php/oswego/news/speck_helps_children_celebrate_chinese_new_year_at_library
The article features a story about a celebration of the Chinese New Year, organized by Judi Furnari, children’s program coordinator and Making It REAL! scholarship recipient. The celebration is an example of a successful practical approach to establish diversity in library services. Reference to the story featured in ALA Direct, from March 17, 2007.
Living Library Project
Life Frames Inc., Sherk. B. (2007). In the news. In A Living Library. Retrieved July 2, 2007, from http://www.alivinglibrary.org/News_links1.htm
A website for the “A Living Library” project, which offers links to publications about the project itself and how it has been implemented by communities around the world.
Sherk. B. (1991). The creation of “A Living Library”: An international network of interactive life frames. Leonardo, 24 (2), 223-226.
This article introduces the idea of a library as a network of parks (or other outside spaces) linked together by the means of modern technology. As such, these networks will support curriculum and learning environments for developing consciousness to ecology and sensitivity to diverse cultural settings.
Sherk. B. (2006). A living library: A global ecological network of diversity and commonality. UN Chronicle Online, XLIII (3). Retrieved on July 2, 2007, from http://www.un.org/Pubs/chronicle/2006/webArticles/121806_lib.htm
The article describes how the idea of “A Living Library” became a strategy to create sustainable community learning environments, sensitive to cultural and ecological differences. As a “network of diversity and communality,” the branches of “A Living Library” (in New York city - Roosevelt Island Living Library & Think Park) are described as the incorporation of local resources into a global learning network to support local learning and development.
Malzewski, J. (2007). Rural library sustainability project overview [Electronic Version]. WebJunction, 11132. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://webjunction.org/do/DisplayContent?id=11132
Brief description and update of the Rural Library Sustainability Project, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and directed towards multiplying library knowledge through training trainers. New York State is currently in the final stages of completing the workshops, and is getting ready to implement knowledge gained into practice.
NOVELNY (n.d.). Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://newyorkonlinevirtualelectroniclibrary.org/
NOVELNY (New York Online Virtual Electronic Library) is a part of a statewide electronic learning community. Provides access to national and international newspapers, health resources, Spanish-language materials, resources for young readers, and more. Library card or New York State driver license or non-driver ID is needed.
NYLA. (2006). New York State library partners with Gates Foundation and WebJunction to provide Spanish language outreach program [Electronic Version]. NYLA Bulletin, 54 (2).
A discussion of the participation of the New York State Library in a joint project with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to promote library outreach to Spanish-speaking populations in New York State.
NYLA. (2007). Libraries change lives: Tell us your story.
A service to collect statements from library patrons to better serve populations of New York State. Statements may be presented to local policy makers.
Penn State University. (2007). Diversity publications. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.libraries.psu.edu/admin/diversity/publications.htm;
University at Arkansas at Little Rock. (2007). Sequoyah research center: American Native press archives. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.anpa.ualr.edu/
An online archive of documents on all aspects of Native American life from the Indian perspective.
Ward, P. (2003). Diversity: ALA holds 5th Annual Diversity Fair in Atlanta, June 2002. Library Management 24, (1/2),91-92.
A brief review of a Diversity Fair that took place at the American Library Association Conference, June 2002, with special attention to diversity programs in US libraries.
The following resources are research articles, bibliographies, and conference presentations that discuss the issues of diversity in library services from a theoretical perspective. Short annotations to the articles are provided.
ALSC. (2002). The American experience: Strength from diversity.Journal of Youth Services in Libraries, 15 (4), 42-43.
Annotated bibliography, completed by the Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) International Relations Committee. Bibliography includes 28 picture books in which diverse American cultures are celebrated.
Byrne, A. (2007). Us and them: Libraries in the community [Electronic Version]. Proceedings of the 73rd IFLA Conference, Durban, 19-23 August, 2007. Retrieved July 6, 2007, from http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla73/papers/128-Byrne-en.pdf
A statement by the current IFLA President on the theme of a library commitment to include socially diverse populations into the services of institutions. Prepared for the 73rd World Library and Information Congress in Durban, South Africa (August 19-23, 2007).
Comeaux, D. (2007). Web accessibility trends in university libraries and library schools. Library Hi Tech, 25 (3).
Dewey, B., et al. (2004). Conference report - 2004 National Diversity in Libraries Conference: “Diversity in libraries: Making It Real” [Electronic Version]. The Southeastern Librarian, 53, (3), 19-22. Retrieved July 26, 2007, from http://sela.jsu.edu/SoutheasternLibrarian/SELn%20Fall%202005.pdf
Mr. Comeaux is one of the Making It REAL! scholarship recipients, attending the University at Buffalo, SUNY. His upcoming publication for the special issue of Library Hi Tech is in part an outcome of his being involved with the Making It REAL! program. The paper provides an assessment of the web accessibility of the accredited Schools of Information Science in North America, and the main libraries of those institutions.
Josey, E., Abdullahi, I. (2002). Why diversity in American libraries. Library Management 21, (1/2),10-16.
Historical perspective on the struggle for diversity in libraries of the United States. Examples of services provided by public libraries are included.
Lee, S. H. (Ed.). (2001). Diversity now: People, collections, and services in academic libraries [Special issue]. Journal of Library Administration, 2001, 33 (1/2, 3/4).
Extensive coverage of issues related to diversity: teaching diversity in library schools, recruitment and multiculturalism, challenges of library work in multicultural environments, racial discrimination, services to special populations including indigenous communities, gender, ethics, and multicultural practices, such as storytelling projects.
Libraries for Life: Democracy, Diversity, Delivery. 68th IFLA General Conference and Council, Glasgow, Scotland, August 18-24, 2002. Conference Proceedings: http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla68/prog02.htm
Lloyd, M. (2007). The underrepresented Native American student: Diversity in Library Science. Library Student Journal, 2. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://informatics.buffalo.edu/org/lsj/articles/lloyd_2007_2_underrepresented.php
Mellon, C., & Kester, D. (2004). Online library education programs: Implications for rural students. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 45 (3), 210-220.
Library Student Journal is a student publication of the University at Buffalo Department of Library and Information Studies. This article addresses the problem of under-representation of Native Americans in the field of Library Science, and possible causes of the problem .
Murray, J. (2000). Training school library staff to cater for diversity. Education for Information, 18 (4), 313-323.
Opportunities for school library staff development, designed to help librarians and teachers meet the needs of disabled students.
Najera, D. (2006). U.S. public library services to Latin American immigrants: A survey of information needs, barriers to access, best practices and guidelines for developing library services at a local level [Electronic Version]. WebJunction, 14626. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://webjunction.org/do/DisplayContent?id=14626
A comprehensive survey of Latin American immigrant populations and their library needs, with a focus on New York City, Chicago, and Florida. Includes forms of service, discussion of collection development, and hiring within the more global framework of best library practices to immigrant populations.
Park, J. (2006). Global access to cross-cultural and cross-lingual resources: Current research trends and their implications to LIS curricula [Electronic Version]. Proceedings of the ALISE Annual Conference, January 16-19, 2006, San Antonio, Taxes. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.alise.org/conferences/2006_Conference/juried_paper_abstracts.html
This article highlights implications of the cross-cultural and cross-lingual information access study to LIS curricula.
Pyati, A. (2003). Limited English proficient users and the need for improved reference services. Reference Services Review, 31 (3), 264-271.
This article addresses the shortcomings of current public library programs for ethno-linguistic minorities, focused mostly on outreach as opposed to reference services. Includes future directions for improving services to multicultural communities. Includes information on Queens Borough Public Library’s “New Americans program”.
Young, C. (2006). Collection development and diversity on CIC academic library Web Sites. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 32(4),370-376.
An article on representation of diversity in collections, including recommendations on how to incorporate diversity collections on the Web. Major library schools were the target of this research initiative.
These sources provide an outlook on diversity services in libraries from specific angles, and may be helpful as practical guides and as tools for theoretical understanding. Topics include services to special populations, such as blind and prison populations, populations with distinct language needs, ethnic and cultural minorities, and indigenous populations. Short annotations are provided.
Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library (n.d.). Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://talkingbooks.nypl.org/index.cfm
A branch of the New York Public Library that serves blind and physically handicapped children and adults statewide. The above address is used for lending to New York City residents. The New York State Talking Book and Braille Library (http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/tbbl/) lends materials to the residents in need from 55 upstate counties of New York State.
Department of Library and Information Science of University of Pittsburgh. (1996). Diversity. In Library and information science Internet sites. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.sis.pitt.edu/~lsdept/links.html#div;
IFLA Library Services to Multicultural Populations Section. (2007). Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.ifla.org/VII/s32/index.htm
The official site for the IFLA Section on Library Services to Multicultural Populations. Includes strategic plan, history, links to publications, and guidelines for library services in multicultural communities in seven languages.
Irvall, B., Nielsen, G. (2005). Access to libraries for persons with disabilities: Checklist [Electronic Version]. IFLA International Reports, 89. Retrieved July 6, 2007, from http://www.ifla.org/VII/s9/nd1/iflapr-89e.pdf.
Guidelines for libraries on how to best serve people with disabilities, developed by the IFLA professional team. Guidelines include recommendations on physical access, media formats, service and communication, and links to helpful Internet sites.
Lehmann, V., Locke, J. (2005). Guidelines for library services to prisoners. IFLA International Reports, 92. Retrieved July 6, 2007, from http://www.ifla.org/VII/s9/nd1/iflapr-92.pdf.
Internationally applicable guidelines on how to serve prison populations, developed by the IFLA Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons Standing Committee. Guidelines include recommendations on the issues of administration, access to the library, facilities and equipment, information technology, staff, budget, library materials, services and programs, and outreach.
Library Video Network. (Producer). (2001). Diversity in the library: A way of life [Motion picture]. United States: Library Video Network.
A 20-minute video for library employees to understand how assumptions about patrons produce difficulties in providing service to all.
The New York EqualAccess Libraries Institute. (2007). Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/libdev/ea/index.html
A four-day professional development program of the New York State Library and Libraries for the Future (LFF), the program division of the Americans for Libraries Council, to better address the library needs of local communities.
NYLA Ethnic Services Round Table. (2006). Bibliographies.
A list of bibliographies, compiled by the New York Library Association Ethnic Round Table members. Contains books about serving ethnic minorities with the focus on the populations of New York State. Bibliographies include Korean books, Chinese books by women writers, Indian films in Hindi, Russian Internet resources, US immigrations websites, and more.
Rathje, B., McGrory, M., Pollitt, C. (2005). Designing and building integrating digital library system [Electronic Version]. The Hague: IFLA Publications. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.ifla.org/VII/s31/pub/Profrep90.pdf
Internationally applicable guidelines on how to serve blind patrons.
Webster, K. (Ed.) (2005). Library services to indigenous populations: Viewpoints and resources. ALA Publications: ALA Office for Literacy and Outreach Services.
A bibliography, completed under the management of K. Webster, a member of the Oneida Tribe of Indians, and former president of the American Indian Library Association. Written as a response to the ALA Office for Literacy and Outreach Services to promote literacy and access to information and knowledge on equal terms to traditionally underserved populations. Also includes short articles on services.
ALA Annual Diversity Research Grant Program http://www.ala.org/ala/diversity/divresearchgrants/diversityresearch.htm
NYLA Scholarships and awards http://www.nyla.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=31
Various awards, including scholarship for diversity students to enable them to enter the LIS profession. Awards are provided by the New York Library Association.
In this section, materials which cover policy developments on the issue of diversity in library services are presented. Sources include national and international guidelines and recommendations, with a special reference to the New York State library system. Materials are listed by sections, and alphabetically within sections.
IFLA Library Services to Multicultural Populations Section. (1998). Multicultural communities guidelines for library services. Retrieved July 8, 2007, from http://www.ifla.org/VII/s32/pub/guide-e.htm
Internationally applicable policy paper that provides criteria for library service in communities with ethnic, religious, linguistic, and cultural diversity.
IFLA Working Group. (2001). The public library service: IFLA/UNESCO guidelines for development [Electronic Version]. IFLA Publications, 97. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.ifla.org/VII/s8/proj/publ97.pdf
Policy paper developed by the IFLA working group on behalf of IFLA Section of Public Libraries. Based on the IFLA/UNESCO Public Library Manifesto (1994), provided as an appendix, the document introduces standards of public library service and access to information and knowledge to all populations, and discusses challenges of bridging the digital divide within and outside national boarders.
USAALA Office for Diversity. (2006). Planning for diversity. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/diversity/diversityactionb/planning.htm
A compilation of sources that provide standards and guidelines on how to create a diversity plan for a library. Includes, among others, ALA Diversity Action and Inclusion Plan (http://www.ala.org/ala/diversity/diversityactionb/ALA_Diversity_Action_and_Inclusion_Plan.pdf).
ALA Reference and User Services Association. (2007). Guidelines for the development and promotion of multilingual collections and services. Retrieved July 8, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/rusaTemplate.cfm?Section=referenceguide&Template=/ContentManagement/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentID=150091
List of standards developed by the Library Services to the Spanish-Speaking Committee for RUSA. Contains guidelines on collection and selection of sources, services, programs, community relations, and staff development.
New York State
Carter, A. (2007). Public library law in New York State. Retrieved July 13, 2007, from http://www.nyla.org/images/nyla/files/Public_Library_Law.pdf
A revised version of rules and regulations in New York State that are applicable to public libraries. The standards related to equality in service (§1.1, §90.9(c)) emphasize equity of opportunities for registration of an entity as a library (such as Indian libraries).
Recommendations of the Regents Commission on Library Services. (2002). Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/rcols/recommnd.htm
Policy document for New York State libraries. Diversity is highlighted in recommendations 2,7 (insurance of information literacy to all),3,4 (equal services to all), 5 (physical access to all), 9, 10 (diversity and advocacy for library staff) and 6(meeting unique needs of diverse communities).
The University of the State of New York, The State Education Department, The New York State Library, and Cultural Education Center. (2007). The New York State Library Services and Technology Act five-year plan. Retrieved July 13, 2007, from http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/libdev/lsta/plan0712.pdf
In response to requirements of The Library Services and Technology Act, the Regents Commission on Library Services adopted this document to follow the Act mission "To raise the knowledge, skill, and opportunity of all the people in New York." The five-year plan provides a summary of the present situation, needs assessments, and proposed activities to achieve the goals stated in the Act.
7 Strategies To Draw Qualified Students of Color into the Profession
Source: Adkins, D. and Espinal, I. (2004). The Diversity Mandate [Electronic Version]. Library Journal, April 15, 2004. Retrieved July 25, 2007, from, http://www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA408334.html?display=searchResults&text=di
- Offer financial incentives and substantial assistance, like that offered by the University of Arizona's Knowledge River program and the successful programs of the 1970s. Don't use tough economic times as an excuse. Librarianship has embraced other changes, especially technological ones. It can likewise embrace demographic changes.
- Enroll a cohort of students of color and students from particular groups. Avoid tokenism.
- Present librarianship as a helping profession and one in which you can give back to your community.
- Allow college students and potential recruits to meet librarians of color with whom they can relate. Collaborate in recruitment activities between library schools, associations of librarians of color, academic libraries (where the college students are), public libraries (where many might like to work), and special libraries when possible.
- Share information about the variety of work. For those concerned with good salaries, management opportunities are especially attractive.
- Be aggressive. Display recruitment posters and brochures in libraries, community centers, bookstores, student advisory offices, and other locations. Talk about librarianship careers with patrons and at library events. Organize recruitment dinners or receptions.
- Work to improve librarian salaries. See the American Library Association–Allied Professional Association (www.ala-apa.org).