William S. Helmer
Assistant Attorney General in Charge
Revised February 1996
1. Lead Poisoning Prevention Resource List
2. For Further Reading
3. Offices Of The Attorney General
DENNIS C. VACCO February 1995 Attorney General
Dear Fellow New Yorker:
If you have small children in your home, you should be especially concerned about the the health risks posed by lead. Even at low levels, exposure to lead can cause serious and permanent damage to the health of young children.
The principle source of lead exposures in young children is lead-based paint, which was used widely in the past in all types of housing. This booklet provides practical information to help parents recognize and prevent lead hazards in their homes.
Inforrnation about lead screening tests is also included in this booklet. Because lead poisoning is usually discovered only by testing, and because virtually all pre-school age children are at some risk of becoming lead poisoned, having your preschool-age children tested is vital.
The federal Centers for Disease Control call lead poisoning, one of the most comrnon and preventable pediatric health problems today. By following the suggestions in this booklet, you can help protect your children from lead poisoning. I am pleased to be able to join you in this effort.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has reported that lead poisoning is "the number one environmental threat to the health of children in the United States." The most recent survey information available (*see endnote 1) indicates that 8.9% of all U.S. children aged 1-5 have levels of lead in their blood that equal or exceed the threshold level of concern established by the federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The incidence is considerably higher than this average among children living in large urban centers (21%) or in low-income families (16.3%), and among non-Hispanic black children nationwide (21.6%). The highest incidence of elevated blood-lead levels (36.7%) occurs among non-Hispanic black children living in central cities with populations of more than one million.
Most lead-poisoned children have been exposed to dangerous levels of lead in their own homes. This booklet has been developed to assist families who rent their homes in protecting their children from lead poisoning. As a renter, you may have less direct control over conditions in your home that may cause lead poisoning than do those who own their own homes, and less knowledge of materials used, renovations performed, etc. To safeguard your children from lead poisoning, you need to know the potential for lead exposure in your rental home, what you should do, and what your landlord may be obligated to do. You should be on the lookout for lead hazards and for ways you can reduce or avoid those hazards. Your children's risk of lead poisoning depends a great deal on whether the apartment or house you rent has any lead hazards, how severe those hazards are, what you are able to do to reduce and control the hazards, and what your landlord does.
Children are most often poisoned by lead that comes from old lead-based paint. Although lead-based paint has been banned for residential use since 1960 in New York City and since 1978 in the rest of New York State and the country, most older housing has at least some old layers of lead paint. Typically, lead paint was used on kitchen and bathroom walls and throughout homes on doors, windows and wooden trim. (*see endnote 2) Nationally, 20% of all housing built between 1959 and 1974 has some lead paint, 70% of housing built between 1940 and 1959 has some lead paint, and 99% of housing built before 1940 has some lead paint. (*see endnote 3 ) In addition, the lead paints manufactured from the late 1800's until about the 1940's tended to have much higher lead content -- up to fifty percent lead -- than the lead paint that was produced later. Today, paint that contains 0.06 percent or more of lead by weight is banned for residential use in New York State. (*see endnote 4 )
The most common cause of lead poisoning in young children is ingesting house dust that is contaminated with lead from lead paint. If the paint is in poor condition, chipping, peeling and flaking, it can be ground into dust after it falls to the floor. Lead paint on the sliding parts of windows may be ground up into dust when you open or close the windows. Any leadpainted surface that gets worn away as it is used (door edges, door jambs, cabinet door edges) or worn away when it's walked on (painted floors and stair steps) can be a source of lead-contaminated house dust.
As every parent knows, it is normal for babies and toddlers to put things in their mouths -- their hands, their toys, almost anything they can fit. The lead-contaminated dust gets on the children's hands or their toys and then into their mouths; this may happen repeatedly, adding up to a significant lead exposure. Children can also inhale lead-contaminated dust that has been raised up by dry sweeping and dry dusting. They may also ingest lead-contaminated dust that has settled onto foods that are stored uncovered on shelves and counters. Very young children may chew on painted objects around them, including the edges of windowsills, doors, chair rails, even painted pipes and radiators when they're not too hot. If these items were painted with lead paint, children may swallow particles or chips of lead paint from these "chewable" surfaces. Some children may pick up and eat loose paint chips they happen to find.
The effects of lead poisoning vary with the amount of lead absorbed into the body, the duration of the exposure, and the age and developmental stage of the child. Even mild lead poisoning can decrease children's intelligence and affect their neurobehavioral development, growth, and hearing. At somewhat higher exposures, lead damages the central nervous system and kidneys and interferes with blood cell formation and development. Very severe exposures can cause coma, convulsions and even death; fortunately, lead poisoning this severe is now extremely rare. However, the damage caused by even mild lead poisoning may be permanent. It is not yet known how much, if any, of the damage can be reversed, even when the exposure to lead is discovered early and eliminated quickly. That is why it is so important to protect young children from being exposed to lead in the first place.
Most lead-poisoned children will not have any obvious symptoms. Children poisoned by lead when they were preschoolers may not show any problems until they are in school, when reading disabilities and problems with attention and fine motor coordination may become apparent. Children with a history of lead poisoning may have greater absenteeism from school, lower class ranking, and a higher risk of not graduating from high school. (*see endnote 5)
Pre-school-aged children are most at risk of becoming poisoned by lead, for several reasons. Very young children tend to have higher exposures to lead because of their normal mouthing and hand-to-mouth behavior. Very young children also absorb lead more efficiently than adults; they may absorb four times more of the lead they swallow than an adult swallowing the same amount of lead. Finally, very young children are more susceptible to the effects of lead because they are still rapidly growing and developing.
Because all preschool-age children are at some risk of getting poisoned by lead, New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) regulations now provide for lead screening of all children under six years of age. (*see endnote 6 ) During checkups, your child's doctor must specifically assess your child's lead poisoning risk, and discuss lead hazards with you. Even if the doctor determines that your child's risk is low, a blood test must be done at around one year of age and again at about two years of age. More frequent testing may need to be done if the doctor determines that your child is at high risk.
Medicaid covers this testing for enrolled children between 6 and 72 months old. If your child doesn't have a regular pediatrician, or if you don't have health insurance for your child that covers blood lead testing, you can call your local health department (check the local government listings under "Health Department" in the blue pages of your phone directory) to find out where to have the test done at low cost or free, depending on your income.
Be sure to ask the doctor about the test result and what it means, because different lead levels call for different responses. When a child's lead level is only mildly elevated (from 10 to 19 micrograms of lead per decaliter of blood, or 10-19 ug/dl), New York State public health regulations' (*see endnote 7 ) call for the doctor to provide nutritional counseling aimed at reducing the child's absorption of lead (children whose diets are deficient in calcium and/or iron can absorb more lead than children who receive adequate amounts of these minerals). The doctor should also suggest various housekeeping and other measures that can reduce the child's exposure to lead, and continue to monitor the child's lead level.
State regulations also mandate that lead levels of 20 ug/dl or more require an inspection of the child's home by a public health worker. (*see endnote 8 ) All blood-lead level measurements are now electronically reported by testing labs directly to a State registery, and then to the local health units responsible for conducting inspections. (*see endnote 9 ) If the inspection uncovers "conditions conducive to lead poisoning" in your rental home, the health department issues a notice and demand to your landlord to abate those conditions by following special safety procedures to complete the abatement tasks that the health department specifies. The abatement work specified may include removal of lead paint; enclosure or, encapsulation of lead-painted surfaces; replacement of lead-painted building components such as windows, doors, and wooden trim; or some combination of these methods, depending on the hazards found. The goal of such abatement work is to make the child's home "lead-safe", not necessarily to remove all lead-based paint regardless of its condition. Under State law, (*see endnote 10 ) landlords who fail to comply with a health department notice and demand can be assessed monetary penalties and face additional enforcement actions.
You can't be absolutely sure whether your rental home contains lead paint unless the paint is tested. You should ask the landlord if the paint has ever been tested for lead. If it has, ask to see the results. However, landlords in New York State are not required to test paint for lead, nor are they required to allow a prospective tenant to test paint for lead before renting. A federal regulation originally scheduled to take effect in October 1995, but now apparently delayed until late 1996, (*see endnote 11) will require landlords to disclose any known lead paint hazards to prospective tenants. It will also require that prospective tenants be given a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) pamphlet about residential lead poisoning hazards. It will not require landlords to undertake any new investigations or assessments to find out whether their rental dwellings contain lead paint or any lead paint hazards. Therefore, if you want to find out whether your rental home contains any lead paint, you may have to have it tested yourself.
Having an entire house or apartment tested is best, but it will be costly. HUD has estimated that, nationally, the cost of professionally testing the interior of an entire 2-bedroom, 900-square-foot apartment using a portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzer starts at under $300. (*see endnote 12) Testing costs may increase as the size of the apartment increases and if exterior paint must also be tested. The XRF testing method can be used without damaging or disturbing the painted surfaces tested. Other methods, such as collecting paint samples for testing or using do-it-yourself kits, can damage painted surfaces, and your landlord may therefore object to their use. Samples of lead paint must be tested by an independent laboratory and this will cost between $20 and $65 per sample; having a technician come to do the sampling costs extra. If you collect the paint samples yourself, ask the lab how to sample the paint properly. See Appendix 1 to obtain a list of testing labs that are certified by New York State to test paint for lead.
There are also do-it-yourself lead paint testing kits that are much less expensive, but they cannot detect lead beneath newer layers of unleaded paint without first scraping throuch the surface paint layers. Such kits may be far less sensitive than other methods, (*see endnote 13 ) and the EPA does not recommend their Use. (*see endnote 14 )
Even if the paint isn't tested, you can use the following guidelines to make an educated guess about whether a rental house, or apartment might have lead paint. If the building was built after 1978, it probably doesn't contain lead paint. If it was built between 1960 and 1978, it may have some lead paint. If it was built between 1940 and 1959, it probably contains lead paint, and if it was built before 1940 it almost certainly contains lead paint. (*see endnote 15 ) Lead paint produced before about the 1940's usually had much higher concentrations of lead than the lead paint produced later. So, the older the housing is, the more likely it is that it contains lead paint, and the higher the lead concentration in the paint is likely to be.
As you can see, it may be hard to find an apartment or house to rent that has no lead paint at all. But not all lead paint creates an immediate, serious risk of exposure to lead. You must examine the condition of the paint carefully to determine if it is, or is likely to become, hazardous.
Look carefully at the condition of all painted surfaces in the home, checking to see whether the paint or underlying plaster or wood is loose or chipping. Lead paint that is chipping, flaking, blistering, peeling or chalking presents an obvious, serious risk of lead poisoning, not only because children may eat the pieces of paint that chip off, but because the deteriorated paint will produce highly contaminated dust. Things like plumbing leaks -- even something as simple as a leaking radiator or a sink or tub that overflowed in the apartment above yours -- can quickly cause paint to blister, peel and then chip. If this happens, notify your landlord immediately, keep children away from the area, and clean up all chips and flakes.
Landlords in New York City are required to repair exposed or damaged lead paint in any rental unit where a child under age six lives. (*see endnote 16 ) Elsewhere in New York State, you should call your local public health department or housing department to determine if your landlord has any obligations under local codes. Landlords who are ordered by the health department or housing department to repair or remove lead paint must follow special procedures. Currently, no such special procedures are required when landlords repair lead paint before they are ordered to do so. However, a careless repair job can just make matters worse. Lead poisoning can be caused bycareless or improper lead paint repairs, renovations and even simple maintenance repainting. Owners can face extraordinary liability if a child in one of their rental units becomes lead-poisoned, either because they didn't repair a dangerous lead paint condition, or because the repairs were not made with care. Because of this, it is in everyone's best interest to get the work done properly.
You should do everything you can to make sure that damaged lead paint is repaired quickly and carefully. If you have any question about whether the damaged paint contains lead, you or your landlord may wish to test the paint first, before starting repairs, especially if the damaged area is large (in New York City, damaged paint in an apartment that was built before 1960 must be presumed to contain lead. unless testing shows otherwise). (*see endnote 17) If the paint does contain lead, following special safety procedures will help ensure that the repairs themselves do not expose your children to dangerously high lead levels. Test results may help persuade your landlord to do the repairs properly. In all lead paint repairs, the goal should be to create as little paint dust as possible, to contain the dust and scraped-off paint chips, and to clean up completely.
The EPA has developed safe work practice guidelines for renovation and remodeling activities involving lead paint, including paint repairs, because these activities may create risk of exposing both repair workers and occupants to dangerous levels of lead. The EPA guidelines provide detailed information concerning work practices and safety precautions, including the use of special equipment such as respirators and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter-equipped vacuum cleaners. The EPA cautions that no one should undertake lead paint repairs unless they can follow all the work practices and safety precautions in the guidelines; otherwise, professionals who are equipped to do renovation, remodeling and repair work safely should be hired. (See Appendix 2 to obtain a copy of the EPA guidelines, (Reducing Lead Hazards When Remodeling Your Home).
The federal CDC recommendations for protecting occupants and workers during lead paint repairs and abatement work include:
- Remove all personal belongings, furniture, drapes, carpets, cooking, and eating utensils from the work area;
- Cover floors, counters, cabinets and radiators with plastic;
- Close off the work area with 6mil-thick plastic sheeting to protect other areas in the unit and heating and ventilation systems from contamination;
- Keep residents, especially children and pregnant women, out of the work area;
- Provide workers with protective equipment, including coveralls, shoe and hair coverings, gloves, goggles and respirators;
- Before repainting, clean the area thoroughly by vacuuming the entire work area with a high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA filter) vacuum, followed by a thorough wet-washing, and finishing with a repeat HEPA filter vacuuming.
(See Appendix 2 to obtain the CDC report, Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children, which contains these and other recommendations for preventing lead poisoning.)
Lead hazard abatements that have been ordered by a local health or housing department must be done following the procedures specified in applicable abatement regulations and in the order itself. (*see endnote 18 ) In New York City, the City's Health Department lead paint abatement regulations must be followed when lead abatements have been ordered by the city's housing department or public health department. (*see endnote 19 ) These regulations are an excellent guide for anyone who needs to know how to repair damaged lead paint properly. (See Appendix 1 to obtain a copy of these regulations.) Detailed safe work practice recommendations for specific activities involved in lead paint repairs, renovations and repainting projects, are also available from the National Association of Home Builders. ( See Appendix 2 to obtain the NAHB publication, What Remodelers Need to Know and Do About Lead.- A Guide for Residential and Commercial Remodelers and Painters.)
Even if the damaged area is very small, certain precautions should be taken. At a minimum, children and pregnant women should remain out of the work area while the repairs are done and until the final clean-up is completed. - All belongings should be moved away from the work area before the work is started. The floor around the work area should be covered with plastic sheeting, and the surface being repaired should be wetted down frequently with a water spray to prevent dusts from spreading around while the blistering or peeling paint is scraped or wet-sanded away. Dry sanding and scraping should be avoided. A thorough wet cleanup of the entire work area should be done before repainting. The person doing the repairs should use appropriate personal protection equipment, avoid eating or smoking in the work area, wash up before meal breaks, and change clothes and wash up at the completion of each day's work.
Lead paint is considered to be intact if the painted surface is smooth and free of blisters, holes and cracks, and the paint is firmly attached to the surface and hard to dislodge. Old layers of intact lead paint that have been covered with unleaded paint are considerably less risky than exposed, deteriorating lead paint. However, the old paint remains a potential hazard even if its condition isn't an immediate threat, and should not be ignored. It may still serve as a source for lead-contaminated dust. For instance, if the old paint is scraped or sanded to prepare it for repainting, heavily contaminated paint dust could be spread throughout the home. Therefore, as discussed above, only wet scraping or wet sanding techniques should be used, followed by thorough wet cleanup prior to repainting. Old lead paint on "friction" surfaces may remain a problem even if they've been repainted, because the new paint can get worn off over time, exposing the underlying lead paint and producing contaminated house dust. An apartment or house in which the old windows have been replaced may present less risk.
You can reduce the risk of lead poisoning associated with lead-contaminated house dust by following a program of frequent, careful and thorough dust removal. Dust removal is not a substitute for repairing damaged paint, but it can reduce lead exposure risks while you await repairs, as well as the risks that even intact lead paint can present. To remove the dust, you need to thoroughly wash and rinse all counters, cabinets, windowsills, window wells, tops of doors and door jambs, moldings, bare floors and any other surface where the paint dust may have settled (sweeping, vacuuming or dry dusting such surfaces will not get rid of all the dust, and tends to raise clouds of dust and spread it around). It's a good idea to do this wet cleaning before moving your family or any belongings into a rental home that may contain lead paint.
The CDC recommends a continuing program of wet mopping and damp dusting of all hard surface floors, stairs, windowsills, base-boards , etc., at least twice a week, to keep lead-contaminated house dust down to a minimum. A cleaning solution made with a phosphate detergent (such as most automatic dishwasher detergents) works best. Any sponges and rags you use for this cleaning should not be used for anything else -- especially not for dish washing or cleaning kitchen counters or tables where you prepare food!
Paint dust that settles into carpeting is especially difficult to remove. If floors are carpeted, a vacuum cleaner with an agitator will remove dust more effectively than a vacuum cleaner with suction only. However, most vacuum cleaner filters can't keep the finest dust particles from escaping in the exhaust and being spread around again, even up into the air where they can be inhaled. Because of this, bare floors in good condition, that can be washed regularly, may present less of a lead poisoning risk than carpeted floors.
A surface layer of unleaded paint on chewable surfaces does not protect children from exposure to lead in the underlying lead paint. Think about ways to keep children away from chewable surfaces that may have been painted with lead paint - for instance, arrange furniture to block windowsills or put radiator covers over exposed painted radiators. Be especially cautious with older hand-me-down items like painted furniture, cribs, and toys that can be chewed on by young children, unless testing confirms that they have not been painted with lead-based paint.
Additionally, you should wash your preschooler's hands and face often during the day, especially before meals, naps and bedtime, to remove whatever dust they may have picked up. Pacifiers, teething toys and any other toys that regularly go into your child's mouth also need to be washed at least once a day.
Your children may encounter lead in tap water and lead in outdoor soils. These sources don't usually produce exposures as high as those that can be caused by lead paint in your home, but they do add to your child's total lead exposure. In some cases of lead poisoning, tap water or outdoor soils may be an important source of lead exposure.
Lead can get into tap water by leaching out of plumbing materials that contain lead, such as pipes and fixtures. Lead piping was widely used in the past, especially in older cities, and many older buildings may still have some lead pipes or lead service lines connecting them to water mains. These kinds of plumbing materials continue to leach lead into tap water.
Because lead solder can produce very high levels of lead contamination in tap water, the use of lead solder on copper piping was banned in New York State in 1985 and nationally in 1986. The amount of lead that leaches out of solder decreases over time, and in 1993 the EPA reported that lead solder that was installed before 1982 was generally not still leaching lead into tap water. However, lead solder is still readily available for other uses, and some "do-it-yourselfers" unaware of the ban may have continued to use lead solder in plumbing repairs after the ban went into effect.
Your landlord may be able to tell you if and when any lead plumbing materials have been used in your building, and whether the tap water has ever been tested for lead. However, landlords are under no requirement to identify or replace lead plumbing materials or to have tap water tested in their rental units.
The longer water stands in contact with lead-containing plumbing materials, the higher the lead level in the water becomes. This is why the first water drawn out of the tap each morning, after the water has stood in the pipes all night, is usually the most contaminated. If the tap has not been used for several hours, you can minimize the amount of lead in the water by first flushing the pipes. Run the cold water for at least a minute or two, or until it runs as cold as it will get. You should use only cold, fully flushed tap water for cooking, drinking and baby formula preparation. Don't use hot tap water, because it can dissolve much more lead out of lead plumbing materials than cold water does, even after you have flushed the pipes. You may find it easiest to keep a large bottle or two of cold, fully flushed tap water in the refrigerator for cooking, drinking and formula preparation.
You can have your tap water tested yourself to find out if it contains elevated lead levels. See Appendix 1 to request a free tap water test in New York Citv, and to obtain a list of independent testing labs that are certified to test drinking water samples for lead. Independent testing labs charge fees currently ranging from under $20 to about $50 per sample. You should have at least two samples tested: one taken from the tap the first thing in the morning, after the water has stood in the pipes overnight, and one taken after you have fully flushed the pipes.
If testing shows that the lead in a fully flushed tap water sample is higher than 15 micrograms per liter (*see endnote 20 ) (ug/l, sometimes reported as parts per billion, or ppb), the EPA advises that you consider using bottled, water for cooking, drinking and formula preparation. Another option would be to install a water filtering device at your tap that is specifically designed to remove lead. Such devices must be selected carefully and replaced periodically.
Outdoor soils in high-traffic urban areas, as well as along heavily travelled highways and parkways, may have been contaminated with lead from auto exhaust emissions during the time when leaded gasoline was still in widespread use (The amount of lead used in gasoline declined steadily between 1976 and 1980, and lead has now been virtually eliminated from gasoline). Contaminated areas may include yards, lawns, playgrounds and parks where young children play.
The soils around houses and buildings whose exteriors were painted with lead paint may also be contaminated from the weathering and fading of the outside paint, or from removal of old paint prior to routine repainting. Elevated lead levels in soil may also be related to industrial emissions, or even former use of the land for certain agricultural purposes, since some pesticides used in the past contained lead.
You can reduce your children's exposure to lead in soil if you don't allow them to play or dig in outdoor soils that may be contaminated with lead. Lead contaminated soil may also be blown or get tracked into your home. The same cleaning methods recommended to control household dust from lead paint can control lead contaminated soil and dust that enters your home from outside. You can also reduce the amount of contaminated soil and dust that gets tracked into your home by putting a dust mat outside your door and cleaning it regularly.
Ask the landlord:
When was the building constructed?
Has the interior paint ever been tested for lead? If so, ask to see the results.
Have windows been replaced?
Does the building contain any lead plumbing materials?
Has the tap water in the rental unit ever been tested for lead? If so, ask to see the results.
If the paint has not been tested:
Consider having it tested yourself; otherwise, assume that any housing built before 1978 (1960 in New York City) contains lead paint.
Check the condition of all painted surfaces to make sure the paint is intact, and keep an eye on the paint condition after you move in.
thoroughly wash the entire home before moving your family or any belongings into a rental house or apartment.
Vacuum carpeted areas thoroughly, if possible using a vacuum cleaner equipped with an agitator. Bare floors in good condition that can be washed regularly can be cleaned more thoroughly than carpets.
Control lead dust with regular (twiceweekly) washing and damp dusting.
Report damaged paint that may contain lead to the landlord immediately, and keep children away. Follow up to be sure the paint is repaired quickly and properly.
Wash children's hands and faces frequently during the day, especially before meals, naps and bedtime. Wash pacifiers, teething toys and other toys that go into your child's mouth at least daily.
If the tap water has not been tested:
Use only cold, fully flushed tap water for cooking, drinking and baby formula preparation.
Consider having the tap water tested for lead yourself.
If testing shows that a fully flushed sample of tap water contains more than 15 ug/l of lead, consider using bottled water of known quality for cooking, drinking and formula preparation, or consider installing a water filtering device at your tap that is specifically designed to remove lead.
To prevent exposure to lead in outdoorsoils:
Don't allow preschool children to play or dig in outdoor soils that are contaminated with lead.
Put a dust mat outside your door and clean it regularly.
To find out for sure whether or not your preschool-age children are being exposed to dangerous levels of lead:
Have them tested! Just as you can't be sure an apartment or house has no lead paint unless you get it tested, you can't be sure that your children aren't being exposed to dangerous lead levels unless you get them tested. Remember that lead poisoning is usually a hidden disease; the only way that lead poisoning can usually be discovered is with a blood test.
1. Brody, D.L., Pirkle, J.L., Kramer, R.A., Flegal,K.M., Matte, T.D., Gunter, E.W., Paschal, D.C., 1994. Blood lead levels in the US population: Phase I of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1991). J. Amer. Med. Assn. 272:277-283.
2. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 1991. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children: A Statement by the Centers for Disease Control October 1991. - Atlanta, GA: CDC, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services.
3. National Research Council (NRC), 1993. Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children and Other Sensitive Populations. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
4. New York State Public Health Law, 1372.
5. Needleman, H.L., Schell, A., Bellinger, D., Levaton, A., Allred, E.N., 1990. The long term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood: an I 1-year follow-up report. N. Engl. J. Med. 322:83-88.
6. Title 10, New York Codes, Rules and Regulations
('NYCRR'), Part 67, Subpart 67-1.
7. Title 10, NYCM Part 67, Subpart 67-1.
8. Title 10, NYCRR, Part 67, Subpart 67-2.
9. Title 10, NYCRR, Part 67, Subpart 67-3.
10.New York State Public Health Law, 1373,1374 and 1375.
11.This federal regulation was mandated under the federal Lead Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992. originally scheduled to be issued as a final regulation by October 28, 1994 and to become effective on October 28, 1995, the development of the regulation fell behind schedule and a proposed regulation was published for public review and comment in November 1994. The comment period ended on January 3, 1995, and a final regulation will be promulgated in late 1995 or early 1996. EPA and HUD indicated in the proposed rule that they interpret Congressional intent as requiring a one year period between the final promulgation of the regulation and its effective date.
12. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 1990. Comprehensive and Workable Plan for the Abatement of Lead-Based Paint in Private-Owned Housing: Report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
13. Consumers Union evaluated and reported on do-it-yourself lead testing kits in the June 1990 issue of "Consumer Reports.'
14. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1994. Reducing Lead Hazards When remodeling Your Home. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
15. National Research Council, 1993.
16. Title 28, Rules of the City of New York ("RCNY"), Chapter 11.
17. Title 28, RCNY, Chapter 11.
18. Housing Department orders are generally issued only after a complaint has been made, and an inspection has confirmed, that a landlord has failed to repair a dangerous lead paint condition. Health Department orders are generally issued only after it has been discovered that a child has a blood lead level of 20 ug/dl or higher and an inspection has determined that there are "conditions conducive to lead poisoning" in the home that require abatement.
19. New York City Health Code, Section 173.14.
20. This is a federal action level for lead that applies only to certain studies required of public water systems, and not to individual samples from homes. Thus, we may use it as a guide, but no regulatory action is triggered if this level is exceeded in your tap water.
To have your preschool children tested for lead poisoning:
Contact your child's doctor; or
Contact your local public health department to find out where you can have your child's blood tested for lead. Check the local government listing in the blue pages of your phone directory under "Health Department".
In New York City, call or write to:
New York City Department of Health
Division of Lead Poisoning Control
Lead Poisoning Prevention Program
311 Broadway, Second Floor
REAR - Box 58A
New York, NY 10007
For general information about lead poisoning
New York State Department of Health
Bureau of Child & Adolescent Health
28 Coming Tower, Room 208
Albany, NY 12237
National Lead Information Hotline Center
For general information about lead in tap water:
New York State Department of Health
Bureau of Public Water Supply
2 University Place
Albany, NY 12203
New York City Department of Environmental Protection
59-17 Junction Boulevard
Corona, NY 11368-5107
EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline
For a list of labs certiried by New York State to test paint, dust, soil and water for lead:
New York State Department of Health Environmental Laboratories &
Empire State Plaza,
Room D224 P.O. Box 509
Albany, NY 12201-0509
To request free tap water testing in New York City:
New York City Department of Environmental Protection
59-17 Junction Boulevard
Corona, NY 11368-5107
For a copy of New York Citv Department of Health lead paint abatement regulations:
New York City Department of Health
Division of Lead Poisoning Control
Lead Poisoning Prevention Program
311 Broadway, Second Floor
REAR - Box 58A
New York-, NY 10007
(21'3 BAN-LEAD or
To report a dangerous lead paint condition in your apartment that the landlord has failed to repair:
Call your local health department or housing department to find out how the housing code regarding lead paint is enforced in your area.
In New York City, contact:
New York City Department of Housing, Preservation & Development
Central Complaint Bureau
215 West 125th Street, 4th Floor
New York, NY 10027
For federal publications, selected journal articles, and other technical information on lead, and for answers from trained information specialists to specific questions on lead-related issues:
National Lead Information Clearinghouse
TDD Number (800) 526-5456 for hearing-impaired persons
Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 1991. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children: A Statement by the Centersfor Disease Control - October 1991. Atlanta, GA: CDC, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. (105 pp.) Free. This report, the CDC's most recent comprehensive statement on childhood lead poisoning, defines lead poisoning and describes its effects; discusses sources and pathways of lead exposure; and presents guidelines for childhood lead poisoning prevention and treatment for public health programs, pediatricians and other health care practitioners, government agencies, elected officials and private citizens. To order, call (770) 488-7330 or write to: Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, 1600 Clifton Road NE Atlanta, GA 30333.
McVay Hughes, C. and Meyer, C, 1993. Get the Lead Out. NYPIRG's Handbook for Lead Poisoning Prevention. New York: New York Public Interest Research Group Fund, Inc. (54 pp.) $6 for individuals and $12 for corporations and government agencies, plus $1 shipping and handling. This public information handbook presents a concise overview of the problem of lead poisoning, summarizes CDC recommendations and guidelines, provides home inspection and testing information, and includes an extensive list of names and addresses of advocacy groups, governiment agencies, testing labs and other helpful resources. To order, call (212) 349-6460 or write to: NYPIRG Publications, 9 Murray Street, 3rd floor, New York, NY 10007-2272.
National Association of Home Builders, 1993. What Remodelers Need to Know and Do AboutLead:A Guide for Residential and Commercial Remodelers and Painters. Washington, DC: The National Association of Home Builders. (49 pp. plus appendices). $15 plus shipping charges. This guide, prepared for remodelers and apartment maintenance personnel, provides general information about lead poisoning, addresses worker and occupant protection issues (including applicable regulations and potential liability), and provides detailed recommendations for performing specific refinishing and remodeling activities. To order, call (800) 368-5242 or (202) 822-0463, or write to: NAHB Home Builder Bookstore, National Association of Home Builders, 15th and M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, April 1994. Reducing Lead Hazards when Remodeling Your Home. (23 pp.) Free. These guidelines are for anyone involved in a home improvement project whether you are actually doing the work yourself or overseeing the work of renovation and remodeling professionals. Topics covered include hazard evaluation, special equipment, safe work practices, work area set-up and clean-up, window replacement, carpet removal, HVAC duct work, plumbing work, preparing surfaces for new paint or wallpaper, and removal of large structures. To order, call the National Lead Information Clearinghouse at (800) 424-LEAD and ask for Publication EPA/747-R-94002, April 1994.
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