New York State Geological Survey

Empire State Geogram
Vol. 31, No. 1, 1996
ISSN 0013-676X

Geological Research
New York
in 1994 and 1995

New York State Geological Survey
New York State Museum
The University of the State of New York
The New York State Education Department
Albany, NY 12230

Vol. 31, No. 1, 1996
ISSN 0013-676X


Mailing List
List of Survey Publications
New Survey Publications
New Supplement for Educational Leaflet 28
New Open-File Listings
NYSGA Guidebook Price List
Paleontology Collection
Mineralogy Collection
Rock Collection
Economic Geology Collection
Teaching Collection
NYSGS Diamond Drill Core Library
Gem Collection
The Donald Eckelman Collection of Zircon Separates
Meteorite Collection
The Percy Crosby Lake Placid 15' Quadrangle Collection
Oil and Gas Well Records
Cuttings from Oil and Gas Wells
Open-File Records
Aerial Photography Collection
Adirondack Aerial Photography at Quadrangle Scale
Satellite (Landsat) Imagery
The Penn Dixie Site: A Paleontological and Outdoor Education Center
Rock Park Exhibit of the New York State Museum
Geologic Research Projects in New York in 1994 and 1995
Economic, Environmental, and Engineering Geology
Geophysics, Seismology, Broad Regional Geology
Surficial Geology, Geomorphology (Pleistocene and Recent)
Sedimentary Geology (Paleozoic-Cenozoic)
Igneous and Metamorphic Geology (Precambrian)
History of Geology
Recent Theses
Recent Publications

The GEOGRAM (ISSN 0013-676X) is published once or twice a year by the New York State Geological Survey, New York State Museum. It is edited by William B. Rogers and John B. Skiba. Address correspondence to New York State Geological Survey, 3140 Cultural Education Center, Albany, NY 12230. Issue No. 1, published every year, includes listings of current geological research being done in New York State, and recent publications and theses on the geology of the State. Issue No. 2, published as needed (every two or three years) includes a complete list of the publications of the New York State Geological Survey, their availability and prices.

The State Education Department does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, religion, creed, disability, marital status, veteran status, national origin, race, gender, or sexual orientation in the education programs and activities which it operates. Portions of this publication can be made available in a variety of formats, including braille, large print or audio tape, upon request. Inquiries concerning this policy of equal opportunity and affirmative action should be referred to the Department's Affirmative Action Officer, NYS Education Department, 89 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12234.


If your address has changed, please return the old mailing label and indicate the correct address. If you are not on our list, but would like to receive the Empire State Geogram (it's free), send us your name and address. Please indicate if you are a student. Replies should be sent to:

Geogram Mailing List
Geological Survey
Room 3140, Cultural Education Center
Albany, New York 12230


A complete list of Survey publications on the geology of New York, their availability, price, and ordering instructions was printed in Volume 28, Number 2, 1992 of the Empire State Geogram. That issue also contains index maps of geophysical mapping and a list of sources for information on subsurface geology. Copies of that issue may be obtained free from:

Publications Sales
New York State Museum
Room 3140, Cultural Education Center
Albany, New York 12230


Catalogue of Earth Science Resources from State Geological Surveys. Compiled by Robert H. Fakundiny and Neil H. Suneson. New York State Museum Circular 56. 1996. $12.00

Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) Image of New York, Pennsylvania and Adjacent Areas, by Y.W. Isachsen. Scale 1:1,000,000, black and white. New York State Museum Map and Chart Series No. 42. In press.


A List of Illustrations and an Index have been prepared for "Geology of New York--A Simplified Account" (Educational Leaflet No. 28). Single copies may be requested from:

New York State Geological Survey
3140 Cultural Education Center
Albany, NY 12230


Fickies, R.H. and Fallis, E., 1996. Rock Type Map of New York State, 1:1,000,000 scale map showing predominant rock types throughout New York. Xerographic copy. Open file number 1g1222. Price $6.00.

Brett, C., Baird, G., and Fakundiny, R.H., 1995. Draft bedrock geologic map: South Onondaga 7.5' quad. (1:24,000 scale). Includes engineering, groundwater, and economic interpretations by R.H. Fickies. Two Xerox overlay sheets for your topographic quadrangle. Open file number 1g1104. Price $10.00.

Pair, D., 1995. Draft surficial geologic map: South Onondaga 7.5' quad. (1:24,000 scale). Includes engineering geology interpretation by R.H. Fickies. Two Xerox overlay sheets for your topographic quadrangle. Open file number 2g639. Price $10.00.

Whitney, P., Fakundiny, R., and Nyahay, R., 1996. Friends of the Grenville - Amis du Grenville: Field Guide, Old Forge, NY. September 27-29. New York State Museum. Approximately 25p. Open file number 10m102. Price $4.00.


(Order from the Executive Secretary of the NYSGA whose address is given below)

Meeting YearHostLocation Pages Price
1-27th 1925-55 **
28th1956Univ. of RochesterRochester121 14.50
29th 1957 N.Y. State Museum Wellsville 66 9.50
30th 1958 City College, CUNY Peekskill 51 9.50
31st 1959 Cornell University Ithaca 36 9.00
32nd 1960 Hamilton College Clinton 61 9.50
33rd 1961 Rensselaer Poly. Inst. Troy 96 13.00
34th 1962 Brooklyn College Port Jervis 90 13.00
35th 1963 SUNY Binghamton Binghamton 116 14.50
36th 1964 Syracuse University Syracuse 12614.50
37th 1965 Union College Schenectady 11114.50
38th 1966 SUNY Buffalo Niagara Falls 116 14.50
39th 1967 SUNY New Paltz Newburgh 128 14.50
40th 1968 Queens College, CUNY Flushing 260 19.00
41st 1969 SUNY Plattsburgh Plattsburgh 183 17.00
42nd 1970 SUNY Cortland Cortland 139 15.50
43rd 1971 SUNY Potsdam Potsdam 150 15.50
44th 1972 Colgate & Utica Coll. Utica 222 18.00
45th 1973 SUNY Brockport Rochester 177 17.00
46th 1974 SUNY Fredonia Fredonia 187 17.00
47th 1975 Hofstra University Hempstead 327 21.00
48th 1976 Vassar College Poughkeepsie 297 23.00
49th 1977 SUNY Oneonta Oneonta 455 24.50
50th 1978 Syracuse University Syracuse 385 22.00
51st 1979 Rensselaer Poly. Inst. Troy 457 24.50
52nd 1980 State Univ. at Rutgers Newark, NJ 400 23.00
53rd 1981 SUNY Binghamton Binghamton 282 20.00
54th 1982 SUNY Buffalo Amherst 38522.00
55th 1983 SUNY Potsdam Potsdam 103 14.50
56th 1984 Hamilton College Clinton 35221.50
57th 1985 Skidmore College Saratoga Sprs. 268 23.50
58th 1986 Cornell University Ithaca 279 23.50
59th 1987 SUNY New Paltz Kingston 350 25.00
60th 1988 SUNY Plattsburgh Plattsburgh 278 25.00
61st 1989 Orange Cty Comm. Coll. Middletown 302 25.00
62nd 1990 SUNY Fredonia Fredonia 437 25.00
63rd 1991 SUNY Oneonta Oneonta 488 25.00
64th 1992 Colgate University Hamilton - v. 1 258
Saranac - v. 2 75+app 30.00
65th 1993 St. Lawrence University Canton 271 25.00
66th 1994 University of Rochester Rochester 590 30.00
67th 1995 Union College Schenectady 425 30.00

Entire set of guidebooks available at $500 for hard copy. Microfiche available for 1956-1987 at $150.

**Many NY State institutions (Mostly itineraries and pamphlets. Because they are fragile, they are not available for loan. Copies, for these years only, will be made for $.20/page.)

Special Editions:
1976 -- The Hudson River Guide--a geological and historical guide to the Hudson Valley as viewed from the river. 115 p. $14.00
1979 -- Middle and Upper Devonian Clastics--Central and Western NY (Guidebook--West Virginia Geological Survey

for Eastern Section of A.A.P.G.) 170 p. $18.00
1983 -- Bedrock Geology of the High Peaks Region, Marcy Massif, Adirondacks, New York. Friends of the Grenville Guidebook;
by Jaffe, Jaffe, Ollila and Hall. 78p. map. $7.00

Order guidebooks by year. Send check and order to:
William M. Kelly, Exec. Secretary, NYSGA
NYS Geological Survey
3140 Cultural Education Center
Albany, NY 12230

Discount of 20 percent given to undergraduate and graduate geology students whose status is verified in writing by department chairperson.

Student Verification
The following student is enrolled in courses __________________________________ at (School)______________________________

_________________________________ Chairperson Signature

NYSGA Guidebook Order Form

Year @ Price, of Guidebook Ordered ____ @ ____ ,____ @ ____ ,____ @ ____ ,____ @ ____ ,____ @ ____ ,____ @ ____ ,

Total amount of order $____________________________

Send orders to:
William Kelly
Executive Secretary, NYSGA
c/o N.Y. State Geological Survey
Room 3140, CEC
Albany, NY 12230

Ship to:

: ZIP:


The New York State Geological Survey has collections of fossils, rock specimens and minerals as well as files of unpublished information on the geology of New York State. These research collections are available to qualified individuals for study. Catalogs for parts of these holdings now exist, and more are being compiled. Information on these collections and access to them may be obtained through the appropriate curator. People wanting to work with one of the collections need to make an appointment with the curator well in advance of their visit. Contact the New York State Geological Survey, Room 3140 Cultural Education Center, Albany, New York 12230. Phone: 518-474-5816, Fax: 518-473-8496. Descriptions of some parts of the collections follow.

Paleontology Collection
Curator, Ed Landing

General.--The New York State Museum Paleontology Collection features approximately one million specimens of the major invertebrate groups, fish, and plants. This research collection is international in scope, with approximately one-half of the specimens from the Paleozoic of New York State and the remainder including comparative material from the eastern and central United States, Canada (material collected before enactment of the Canadian Cultural Heritage Act), and western Europe.

Organization.--The Paleontology Collection is housed in rows of steel cases and grouped in major taxonomic categories. These include 1) plants (with stromatolites), 2) "protozoans," 3) calcareous problematica, 4) phosphatic problematica, 5) agglutinated problematica, 6) sponges 7) hydrozoans, 8) stromatoporoids, 9) anthozoans, 10) conularids, 11) brachiopods, 12) bryozoans, 13) styliolines and tentaculids, 14) monoplacophorans (and problematical mollusks with untorted, planispiral conchs), 15) rostroconchs, 16) gastropods, 17) bivalves, 18) cephalopods, 19) annelids and other "worms," 20) trilobitoids, 21) trilobites, 22) eurypterids and xiphosurans, 22) crustaceans, 23) asterozoans, 24) edrioasteroids and 25) other echinozoans, 26) "pelmatozoans," 27) graptolites, 28) conodonts, 29) tommotids, 30) fish, and 31) trace fossils. A "Sedimentary Lithology" collection has been established to serve as a repository for illustrated slabs, SEM mounts, and thin sections that have been illustrated in scientific reports.

Each taxonomic category is subdivided into a type collection, an "E-collection," and a stratigraphic collection.

Type collections.--Type collections for each of the taxonomic groups include specimens illustrated in formal scientific reports (i.e., holo-, para-, hypo-, lecto-, and syntypes). The specimens are reposited in alphabetical order (by Genus species) according to the name that they were first reported in the scientific literature. Each specimen has a unique number.

There are approximately 17,500 type specimens. A numerically sequential specimen synonymy and an alphabetical index for type specimens are maintained in the paleontology office. Type specimen lists have been published in 1903 (numbers NYSM 1-5159; NYSM Bulletin 65 [out-of-print (OP)]), 1905 (NYSM 5160-5757; in NYSM Bull. 80 [OP]), 1905 (5758-6175, in Annual Report of the Director of the NYSM for 1904 [OP]), 1907 (NYSM 6176-6472, in Annual Report of the Director of the NYSM for 1906 [OP]), 1954 (NYSM 6473-8558, NYSM Bull. 348), 1959 (8559-11,058, NYSM Bull. 376), and 1971 (NYSM 11,059-12,716).

"E-collections."--Specimens that were on display until the 1950s were returned to the collection as "E (Exhibit)-collections." Almost all of the major taxonomic groupings listed above have a separate "E-collection" in cases adjacent to the type specimen cases. For example, the seven Lane cases of NYSM trilobite type specimens are followed by five cases of "E"-trilobites. "E"-material generally consists of well preserved and well prepared specimens that may be useful in systematic studies. These specimens were largely added to the collection during the tenures of James Hall and John M. Clarke and include a large number of Lower and Middle Paleozoic species from classic localities in North America, Britain, and western and central Europe. The "E-collections" will gradually shrink as specimens are integrated into the stratigraphic collections or are illustrated as new types.

Stratigraphic collections.--Most of the NYSM Paleontology Collection (over 80%) consists of "stratigraphic collections" of the major taxonomic groups. As an example, nine cases of type anthozoans and six cases of "E"-anthozoans are followed by 49 cases of stratigraphically arranged anthozoans. Stratigraphic collections of a major taxonomic category are grouped by geological period, with New York material of, say, the Ordovician followed by "foreign" Ordovician material (from other U.S. states, Canada, and overseas countries).

Focus of collections.--Although most of the specimens illustrated by James Hall in the Paleontology of New York were sold at the end of the nineteenth century (known purchasers include the Museum of Natural History, University of Chicago, Beliot College, University of California-Berkeley), the Paleontology Collection is representative of the careers and publications of a number of paleontologists. A number of "stratigraphic collections" are worthy of further study because they can include diverse and abundant material from topotype localities. A partial list of interesting stratigraphic collections, grouped by collector, follows:

1) E.B. Ford; small field collections of Lower Cambrian trilobites, mollusks, hyoliths, and problematica from Taconic allochthon, eastern NYS; collections circa 1870s, presently under study by E. Landing.

2) W. B. Dwight; Upper Cambrian--Middle Ordovician brachiopods, trilobites, and mollusks of Dutchess County, eastern NYS; collections from late 1800s and early 1900s.

3) C.D. Walcott; Upper Cambrian trilobites from eastern NYS and the first echinoderm collections from the Waldron Shale (Upper Silurian, Indiana) collections from late 1800s-earliest 1900s.

4) J. M. Clarke; Silurian-Devonian brachiopods and corals of the northern Appalachian Basin; Silurian eurypterids, largely from central and southeastern NYS; lower Upper Devonian fish from Miguasha, Quebec; Lower Devonian corals, eastern Quebec; pyritized Lower Devonian echinoderms from the Hunsruckscheifer; Lower Devonian trilobites of the Helderberg Group, eastern NYS; and Devonian trilobites and mollusks from Turkey, the Falklands and Brazil; collections from the early 1900s.

5) E. Simpson; unpublished Silurian-Devonian corals from eastern North America and the Falls of the Ohio; collections ca. late 1800s.

6) R. Ruedemann; Ordovician-Silurian graptolites of NYS, Ontario, Germany, Sicily; lower Middle Ordovician radiolarite thin sections; Upper Ordovician mollusks (primarily bivalves) from Lorraine Group, northwest NYS; collections from early-middle 1900s.

7) W. Goldring; large collections of Devonian crinoids and plants, primarily from eastern-central NYS; collections from middle 1900s.

8) B. Bell; large slabs with articulated echinoderms from the Verulam Formation (Middle Ordovician, Ontario) and extensive hardground surface with edrioasteroids (Lower Devonian, Manlius Limestone, central NYS; undescribed collections from 1970s.

Loan and collection use policy.--Loans are primarily made to academic and research institutions at the request of the borrower. Type specimens (up to 20 at a time) may be borrowed for periods of 3 months and cannot be altered without permission. "E" and stratigraphic collections material can be borrowed for up to a year, and permission can be granted for any legitimate preparation technique (e.g., thin and polished sections, geochemical analysis, etc.). Loaned materials are shipped by registered mail (registered air mail outside of North America).

Repository.--The NYSM Paleontology Collection is available as a repository for paleontological and sedimentary rock specimens that are illustrated in published reports. Specimens collected either in NYS or any other region are welcomed. A unique type number should be requested for each illustrated specimen. Repository of collateral study materials is also welcomed and will be stored with unique NYSM locality numbers.
Contributors of type specimens are asked to supply the following information with each type specimen: genus and species name, author, precise locality information (e.g., state/country, county/province, city/village/hamlet/quarry name (if appropriate), topographic sheet name, location along road/street/river/creek/etc.), and precise stratigraphic information (group, formation, member, metric distance above base of measured section).
Mineralogy Collection
Curator, William M. Kelly

The mineral collection of the New York State Museum contains approximately 30,000 specimens divided into two sub-collections. Roughly 10,000 of the specimens are in the "New York" collection and the remainder are in a "non-New York" collection representing world-wide localities. Virtually all minerals reported in New York are in the "New York" collection. These number about 270 species and varieties. Species from most classic, and now depleted, collection sites are represented as well as many unreported localities. The "non-New York" mineral collection is dominated by specimens from sites in the Americas but western Europe and southern Africa are fairly well embodied. Approximately 30% of known species are held in the collections.

The mineralogy collection is stored in steel "Lane"-type cases in the Cultural Education Center. Both sub-collections are organized according to standard chemical and crystal structural groups. Non-silicates and quartz are ordered in accordance with Dana's System of Mineralogy, Seventh Edition. Silicates are in the groups and order listed in Strunz, Mineralogische Tabelen, Fifth Edition. Species validity is based on Fleischer, Glossary of Mineral Species, 1991. However, discredited names and varieties have been retained in some cases due to local usage or historical significance.

The mineral collection contains specimens used for display, research, and reference. Multiple specimens of a given species from the same locality may be present in the collection to allow for study and exchange material. Acquisition of material is heavily accented towards New York specimens but additions of material from outside New York State are made to the collections if the specimen is of high quality.

The following is a partial summary of collections, contents and dates of acquisition. The specimens amassed by Lewis Caleb Beck during the course of research leading to the publication of the Report on the Mineralogy of New York in 1842 formed the nucleus of the mineral collection of the New York State Museum. It appears that he continued to add specimens to the collection for several years after the original survey of New York was completed. In 1851 and 1852 minerals and geological specimens from Mr. Franklin B. Hough were added to the collections. These were mostly specimens from St. Lawrence County. A small collection of Brazilian minerals and ores was presented to the Museum in 1865 by the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro through the Honorable Mr. Lisboa, Envoy Extraordinary of Brazil. In 1868, the collection of a Professor Pickett was acquired by the Museum. This collection was principally of fossils but did contain minerals of the Lockport Formation and from New England localities.

In 1870, specimens from Herkimer, NY were purchased from Mr. George W. Pine. In addition, some 400 additional specimens were purchased in one lot but the source was not identified. Among these latter specimens were some beautiful formations of flowstone from Ball's Cave in Schoharie County. A small number of pieces were added to the collection that year by Museum Director James Hall. Also in that year, 182 specimens of minerals, fossils, and historical relics were added to the Museums's holdings from Mr. Jeptha Simms. It is reported that few of the specimens from that collection were up to the grade of the Museum's mineral collection as it existed at the time. Finally in 1870, the collection of Dr. Ebenezer Emmons was purchased by the Honorable Erastus Corning and presented to the Museum as a gift. This collection consisted largely of specimens of New York minerals and some foreign occurrences. Among the former was a suite of calcite specimens from Rossie, NY. The non-New York material included specimens from the Hartz region in Saxony, Germany bearing labels of the Freiburg Mining School and dated 1848.

The collection of John Gebhard was purchased in 1873. This collection was, in the main, a local one. It consisted chiefly of fossils form the Schoharie Valley and minerals of the "water lime" formations i.e., minerals from the rocks used for natural cement. This collection also included specimens of calcareous minerals recovered from the caves in Schoharie County. In this same year the Van Rensselaer collection of fossils, rocks, and minerals was received by the Museum. It was in poor condition having been loosely packed in boxes and barrels.

An extensive general mineral collection was purchased in 1886 from Dr. George F. Kunz.   A smaller but significant collection of minerals from Westchester county was bought from him in 1888. Included in the 1886 purchase were the gem materials that formed the nucleus of the Museum's current gem collection. Also at this time, Kunz sold to the Museum several large fluorite crystal groups from Macomb, NY.

In 1891, a collection with significant historic value was presented to the New York State Museum by the Albany Institute of History and Art. Among the contributors to this collection were Stephen Van Rensselaer, DeWitt Clinton, T. Romeyn Beck, John Gebhard, Lewis Caleb Beck, and Erastus Corning. Some few dozens of minerals were purchased from Mr. George English in 1896. A sizable exchange of specimens occurred in 1902 with the Egleston Mineral Museum of Columbia University. This same year is noted in the records as a very active collecting year for Dr. H.P. Whitlock of the Museum staff.

A donation of 286 specimens from Dr. Joseph Simms was received in 1903. A small but locally important collection of minerals from southeastern New York was presented to the Museum in 1904 by Mr. P. Edwin Clark. This collection included many fine quartz and ore specimens from Ellenville, NY. In 1907, approximately 400 specimens from Lyon Mountain, NY were donated by Mr. H.H. Hindshaw and over 100 Italian and Swiss specimens were given to the Museum by Mrs. J. V. L. Pruyn.

The collection of Mr. Chester D. Nimms was purchased in 1908. This collection comprised over 4000 specimens, a large portion of which were collected in New York State. The bulk of the New York material was from occurrences in St. Lawrence County. In 1909, an outstanding collection of minerals from the Sterling Mine in Antwerp, NY was purchased from Mr. R. S. Hodge. The materials were collected by Hodge during the many years that he was superintendent of that mine and, at the time, represented the best material from that locality.

In 1914, the collection of Dr. Silas Young was purchased. These specimens represented world-wide localities but were mainly from Orange County, NY and northern New Jersey. A further Egleston Museum exchange of New York State minerals is recorded in 1951 and, in 1917 Mr. Charles N. Mcgill (sic) donated a collection of over 100 geodes from the Illinois-Iowa region.

A hiatus exists in the collection records from the early part of the twentieth century until the late 1940s. It seems unlikely that the Museum's collection remained static during this period but no records exist of major mineral acquisition activity. During this time period, Museum staff members charged with responsibility for knowledge of minerals were involved in studies of the mineral industry and did not concentrate on mineral specimen acquisition per se. For example, Dr. David Newland of the Museum staff brought in many New York ore specimens during this general time period and the collection of native copper and copper minerals of Mr. Jonas Brooks was donated in 1930.

Chronologically, the next major collection to be accessioned was received in 1949 from Mr. John N. Trainer. This was an extensive collection of minerals from the Tilly Foster iron mine in Brewster, NY. In 1969, the Museum purchased a suite of New York minerals from Wards Natural Science Establishment. It is possible that this material was acquired by Wards from Williams College.

The Adam Geer collection of New York minerals was purchased in 1974. This was a large collection containing material from many exhausted localities. Of particular note are the celestine specimens from Chittenango Falls, NY. The new mineral geerite was described from material contained in this collection. A very important collection of minerals and gems was donated to the Museum in 1979 by Mr. Elmer B. Rowley. The collection included approximately 1000 New York specimens and 4000 samples from localities world-wide. This collection added greatly to the number of species held by the Museum as well as contributing a large number of display-quality specimens.

In 1984, the fossil and mineral collection of Dr. Monroe A. McIver was donated to the Museum. Primarily a fossil collection, the material included a number of noteable fluorite, quartz and tourmaline specimens. In 1991, a large suite of minerals from the zinc and talc mines of St. Lawrence County was accessioned. The minerals were collected by miners working in those mines and were presented to the Museum via Mr. Vernon Phillips. In 1994, a large collection of mineral specimens from the Adirondacks, belonging to the late Mr. Spencer Cram, was donated to the Museum by his family.
A catalog is available.

Rock Collection
Curator, William M. Kelly

Roughly 2000 specimens comprise this collection of rocks from New York. All rock types and most stratigraphic formations are represented. The collection is organized by physiographic region. These regions are the Ontario Lowlands, Allegheny Highlands, Tug Hill Plateau, St. Lawrence Lowlands, Adirondack Lowlands, Adirondack Highlands, Mohawk Lowlands, Catskill Highlands, Hudson Lowlands, Champlain Lowlands, Taconic Highlands, Hudson Highlands and Atlantic (coastal plain) Lowlands. Most specimens are hand sized. Many were collected in the course of specific geological investigations. Consequently, samples are irregularly distributed statewide.
A catalog is available.
Economic Geology Collection
Curator, William M. Kelly

The New York State Museum Economic Geology Collection contains approximately 2000 specimens of ore, concentrates, gangue, and finished products collected from the operations of the mineral industry of New York during the past century. Most of the material mined in New York is represented in this collection. The bulk of the specimens were on public display when the State Museum was housed in the State Education Building. Specific commodity representation in this collection is related to the importance and duration of the industry producing the product. Hence, there are more specimens of iron and zinc ore than of pigments or slate roofing shingles. The majority of specimens were collected while the mines were in actual operation so provenance is good overall.
A catalog of this collection is available.
Teaching Collection
Curator, William M. Kelly

This collection consists of a general inventory of specimens in the New York State Museum's geology collection that are useful for teaching and demonstration purposes. Some of these specimens were on display in the State Museum prior to 1976. Other specimens were acquired by State Museum or collected by New York State Geological Survey staff members because the specimens represented particularly good examples of geologic processes or materials. The identity of the specimens was determined from the specimen label itself. Some of the labels are very old. Consequently, the identification of some of the material is somewhat archaic. No attempt has been made to update the identification of the specimens, verify the fossils, or modernize the nomenclature. It will be noted by the user of this material that this is not a synoptic teaching collection. The collection has greater depth in some materials, e.g., sedimentary rocks and features, than in others. Conversely, some unusual materials, such as salt hopper crystal molds, are represented and some items, like "clay dogs", are present in great profusion. The user of the material is encouraged to examine the specimens directly to determine which will most adequately serve the user's purpose. The materials in this collection are intended to be used to facilitate instruction and exhibition. This material is also available on loan to teachers, museums, and other public and private institutions engaged in educational endeavors.
A catalog is available.
NYSGS Diamond Drill Core Library
Curator, William M. Kelly

The New York State Geological Survey maintains a library of diamond drill core recovered from localities across the State. Samples range among those from shallow (tens of feet) borings taken for construction projects to those from exploratory holes over 12,000 feet deep. Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks are represented. The cores in the collection come from several state and federal agencies, the mineral industry, oil and gas exploration and the academic community. This core collection is the only one in New York with such wide geographic coverage. The one other core collection in New York, that at Hofstra University, is restricted to samples from New York City.
A significant addition was made recently to the Survey's drill core library. Cores from 332 holes totaling 76,213 feet of core, were transferred from the US Bureau of Mines Twin Cities Research Center in Minnesota to the Survey's core storage facility in Rotterdam, NY. The acquisition of this core more than doubles the holdings of the Survey's core library and greatly extends the geographic area of New York for which the Survey has subsurface samples. The areas sampled represent mining regions that were active in the last century as well as sites that showed promise but were never actually mined. This core weighs over 54 tons and is contained in 1426 boxes five feet in length. The material was recovered in the late 1940s and early 1950s in Clinton, Genesee, Orange, Orleans, St. Lawrence, and Sullivan Counties during a Bureau of Mines program of exploration for iron, zinc, and lead. The drill core collection is racked on pallets at the storage facility in Rotterdam and is available for limited study.
A catalog of the collection is being compiled.
Gem Collection
Curator, William M. Kelly

The mineral collection of the New York State Museum contains one thousand specimens of gem material. The term "gem" refers to inorganic materials that have been cut into faceted stones, cabochons, or beads, and organic materials such as coral and pearls which have not necessarily been modified from their natural state. The specimens are not mounted in jewelry and this collection does not contain carved mineral material. Uncut gem-quality minerals and polished slabs of agate or other gem species are not included in the gem collection.
A catalog of this collection is available. The catalog is organized alphabetically by species and subdivided by variety. Both natural and synthetic minerals are included. Locality information, cut, color, weight and source, are provided along with specimen number. Information is most complete for material from New York localities. Locality data are lacking for some entries.
The Donald Eckelmann Collection of Zircon Separates
Curator, William M. Kelly

Donald Eckelmann spent a number of years studying the morphology of zircons in metamorphosed granitoid rocks, attempting to determine their protolith. He spent one sabbatical semester working in the NYS Geological Survey laboratories extracting zircons from granitoid rocks of the Adirondacks, Hudson Highlands, Manhattan Prong, and New England. Numerous publications resulted from his research.
The collection includes eight field notebooks covering the years 1963-1964, 1967, 1972-1975, and 1977, 69 sample location maps (scale 1:24,000 and 1:62,500), 755 rock thin sections, of which 590 are from the Adirondacks, 105 are from the Hudson Highlands, and 60 are from New England. In addition, there are 563 zircon grain mounts, of which 393 are from the Adirondacks, 114 are from the Hudson Highlands, and 56 are from New England. The collection is available for study from the New York State Geological Survey. It provides a remarkable reconnaissance tool to guide geochronological studies in the four regions involved.
Meteorite Collection
Curator, William M. Kelly

The New York State Museum has a small collection of meteorite specimens from 28 localities, one pseudo meteorite, three tektites, and one lunar basalt. The majority of the specimens were acquired between 1880 and 1920. The Bethlehem, Burlington, Mount Morris, and Tomhannock Creek meteorites and the Scriba pseudo meteorite are the only meteorites from New York State represented in the collection.
A catalog of the meteorite collection is available. It includes information on provenance, weight and size, description and references.
The Percy Crosby Lake Placid 15' Quadrangle Collection
Curator, William M. Kelly

Percy Crosby did detailed geologic mapping and related studies of the Lake Placid 15' quadrangle during the summers of 1962-1969, receiving support from the New York State Geological Survey and the National Science Foundation. The result was seven large scale (1:10,000) outcrop maps covering very rugged terrain, and several publications dating back from his 1972 paper "Petrogenesis and significance of leuconorite inclusions in the main Adirondack anorthosite massif," Proceedings of the 24th International Geological Congress, Section 2, p. 312-319.
In addition to the 1:10,000 geologic maps, the collection includes 11 field notebooks and 730 thin sections. The notebooks cover the years 1962-1969 and also include work in Labrador and the Canadian Rockies. The large-scale maps of the Lake Placid quadrangle show sample locations and geologic data. Thin sections available for study include 678 from the Lake Placid Quadrangle, 37 from the Ausable Forks Quadrangle, and 15 from the Mt. Marcy Quadrangle.
Oil and Gas Well Records
Curator, William B. Rogers

These records comprise three files. 1. A file of scout cards contains information for about 20,000 wells drilled for oil and gas in New York. The cards include data such as location by geographic coordinates, property owner, date drilled, date completed, total depth, depth to formation tops, gas, oil or water shows, production data, logs run, etc. This file is arranged geographically by county and town and serially by API (American Petroleum Institute) number within towns. 2. A log file contains logs of several types from about 8000 wells. The number of logs per well ranges from one to eight. Gamma-ray and neutron logs are the most common ones included. The file contains about 20,000 logs and is arranged in the same way as the card file. 3. A correspondence file contains permits, completion reports and miscellaneous information for about 16,000 wells. Not all wells have complete records. This file is arranged serially by API number. The Oil and Gas records can be examined in our Albany office by appointment. Copies of individual records can be made for a fee. (Sample collections, i.e. cuttings and drill core are described below.)
Cuttings from Oil and Gas Wells
Curator, William B. Rogers

This collection consists of drill cuttings from over 1400 wells in New York, from a few wells in Pennsylvania and Ohio, and from one stratigraphic test drilled on the continental shelf. A large portion of the samples are from wells drilled with cable tool rigs which produced relatively large chips from accurately known depths. The collection is in our Albany office where it is available for inspection.
A database that lists the wells (indexed by county and town) and the sample intervals is available for a fee. Contact Publication Sales.
Open-File Records
Curator, Robert H. Fickies

The New York State Geological Survey has a large collection of unpublished geologic documents that constitutes the Open File. The material includes well logs, field maps, notes, unpublished reports of researchers and consultants, boring records, aerial photography, satellite (Landsat) images, SAR images, geophysical records, and miscellaneous other records pertaining to the geology of New York. A large part of the Open-File collection has a computerized index, however the main parts of the oil and gas well records and aerial photography collections are not included in this index. These two sets of records are described separately below.
The index system uses 10 broad categories: Bedrock Geology, Surficial Geology, Aerial Imagery (miscellaneous), Geophysical Data, Hydrologic Data, Engineering Geology, Oil & Gas (miscellaneous), Non-Fuel Mineral Resources, Paleontology, and Miscellanea. Items are identified by open-file number. The file can be searched by open-file number, title, author, type of study, or county. A search by county is the one most commonly requested.
The Open-File includes some topical collections. The Thomas W. Fluhr Memorial collection contains over one thousand project files relating to the New York City Water Supply System, New York City site studies, and other investigations worldwide. Much of this material has a computerized index. The Knickerbocker collection contains State, City, and private consultant reports for highway, utility, and building construction projects within New York City. This material has a computerized index.
Adirondack Quadrangles. Some of the open file material (maps and images) for the Adirondack region has been segregated into individual quadrangle (1:62500) packets. A packet contains 1) available geologic maps, both published and hand-colored unpublished, at 1:62500 and 1:24000; 2) a topographic map, at 1:62500, reduced from modern 1:24000 maps; 3) an orthophoto map at 1:62500; 4) a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image at 1:62500; 5) an aeromagnetic map at 1:62500; 6) a gravity map at 1:62500. The open-file index should be searched for additional material that may not be included in these packets.
The Open-File material can be examined at the Survey's Albany office by appointment. Please make the appointment several days in advance. The NYSGS does not control preparation of the vast majority of data in the Open-File, therefore, the Survey cannot guarantee the validity of the material. It is available as a public service. Xerographic copies of many items, including maps, can be made for a fee.
Searches of the computerized index can be ordered for a fee. Current costs for this service are as follows:
Complete listing by Open-File number. County codes are shown for each entry. Cost: $75.00.
Listing for an individual county. Cost: $4.00.
Complete set of New York State county listings (62). Cost: $100.00.
Major category listing, by Open-File number. County codes are shown for each listing. Cost: $10.00.
Inquire about fees for custom searches. Prepaid orders for computer searches should be sent to:
Publication Sales--Open-File
Room 3140, CEC
Albany, NY 12230 Prices include shipping charges. Checks should be made payable to the New York State Museum.
Aerial Photography Collection
Curator, Robert H. Fickies

This collection contains a set of air photos taken in 1968 that covers the entire state. Several earlier sets that date from the early 1930s partially cover the state. All the sets give stereoscopic coverage. Photomosaics provide indexes to these sets of photos.
Adirondack Aerial Photography at Quadrangle Scale
Curator, Yngvar W. Isachsen

The Geological Survey has a set of prints and negatives covering much of the Adirondacks at a scale of 1:62,500. As few as three of these air photos can provide stereo-coverage for a 15' quadrangle. The pictures were taken in May, 1985.
The prints are available for use in our Albany office and Xerox copies of them can be made on the premises. Arrangements also can be made to have photographic prints produced at a local firm.
Satellite (Landsat) Imagery
Curator, Yngvar W. Isachsen

This collection includes black and white and color imagery taken by Landsat in early-mid 1970s. At scale 1:1,000,000, the collection includes full coverage of New York State, and surrounding areas, with multiple exposures of the same scenes at successive dates. This set includes both prints and transparencies. The collection includes selected prints of parts of the State, both black and white and color at 1:500,000 and 1:250,000 scale. No detailed index is available.
The Penn Dixie Site: A Paleontological and Outdoor Education Center

The Penn Dixie Site is an abandoned shale quarry, southwest of Buffalo in the Town of Hamburg, New York, once worked by the Penn Dixie Cement Company. An important and very fossiliferous section in the Middle Devonian Hamilton Group is exposed here.
A few years ago, some dedicated individuals began an effort to preserve the quarry for its paleontological and stratigraphic features, and in 1993, formed the Hamburg Natural History Society, Inc.(HNHS); its mission--to acquire and develop the quarry site for educational purposes.
The geologic importance of these exposures is expressed by these excerpts from a letter written by Professor Carlton Brett, University of Rochester, in 1990. "...Many beds are shown here particularly well because of the low angle at which the quarry has been beveled. ... weathered exposures at the north end of the old quarry have revealed an abundance of fossil crinoids which are not found commonly in the upper Wanakah Shale at other localities. The section of grey Windom Shale on the opposite side of the road is arguably the best, and most complete outcrop of this unit in the state. It is also still highly fossiliferous and contains some fossils which cannot be found at any other localities, for example, some pyritized sponges and also blastoids which are as yet undescribed. The rim of the quarry on the south side is one of the best exposures of a fossil bone bed in the state. This stratum, the North Evans Limestone, ... is a particularly interesting stratum from a variety of standpoints (we have described it in two guide book articles) ... . The unit also contains some of the only well preserved fossil fish remains found in western New York. In the northeast corner of the quarry is a very important limestone ledge, the Tichenor Limestone which shows evidence of having been a marine erosion surface during the Devonian period.
In, short, there are a number of very important geological features that are particularly well displayed in the old Penn Dixie Quarries. This is an invaluable teaching and reference locality for professional geologists. Many students have learned their paleontology at this locality already. It would be a great loss to the geology of western New York if this site were to be destroyed, I would argue, in fact, that this is one of 5 or 6 most important geological sites in the Niagara Frontier area and that its loss would mean considerable setback in terms of study of Devonian geology in eastern North America. It should be noted that the northwestern region of New York State, in particular, is world renowned as a reference section for the Devonian strata. Penn Dixie is one of the classic sections that people from Europe, Soviet Union, Australia and others have come to visit in the recent past. ..."
Two articles that include descriptions of the geology of the Penn Dixie quarry appear in New York State Geological Association field guidebooks: 1974, Trip G, Biostratigaphy and Paleontology of the Windom Shale Member (Moscow Formation) in Erie County, New York, by Carlton E. Brett; and 1982, Trip A 1, Upper Moscow-Genesee Stratigraphic Relationships in Western New York: Evidence for Erosive Beveling in the Late Devonian, by Carlton E. Brett and Gordon C. Baird.
In January 1996, the Town of Hamburg purchased the 56 acre quarry property, and deeded to the Hamburg Natural History Society 32.5 acres now officially known as the Penn Dixie Site. The remaining acreage went to the local Community Development Program for housing.
In May 1996, volunteers, 150-strong, gathered at the Site for a massive cleanup of the rubbish that is naturally attracted to abandoned quarries. Great progress was made. Further development plans include construction of a nature trail that is accessible to the handicapped; improvement of two existing ponds on the Site; installation of telescope pads for astronomy programs; and construction of a building for education programs and classes.
The primary purpose of the Society is to preserve the Site for present and future generations, so that interested individuals from all walks of life can study and collect fossils. During the past two years, the Society has had an active educational program that included field trips to collect fossils and evening astronomy programs. In the spring of 1996, they trained a number of field trip leaders, and now offer guided field trips for students in elementary through high school levels. They will conduct trips for amateur geology clubs, scouts, and other organizations, as well. The Site is accessible to amateur and professional geologists, school groups and other organizations. There is a nominal charge to non-members of the Society to collect fossils.
Fortunately, the Site is now in good hands, thanks to the vigorous and sustained efforts of the people who formed the Hamburg Natural History Society. Congratulations to them. They deserve our thanks and support.
You are invited to become a member of the Society to help sustain and further develop the Penn Dixie Site: Individual Membership, $10; Family Membership $15; Corporate Membership $100. Donations and gifts to the Society are tax exempt.
The Society has reprinted the 1898 two-part edition of Palaeontology of Eighteen Mile Creek by Amadeus W. Grabeau as part of their fund raising effort. It is available from them for $29.95 + 8% NYS tax + $3.00 postage. . . Send your inquiries to:
Hamburg Natural History Society
Jerold Bastedo, President,
P.O. Box 277
Hamburg, NY

New Millennium
Rock Park Exhibit of New York State Museum
by Yngvar Isachsen

This is to describe a major new outdoor museum exhibit currently in the "collecting stage" of preparation, and to request your help in locating outstanding specimens to display.

Scope: A Rock Park will be created to show the geological variety of New York State, using a display of large rock specimens (up to several tons) arranged in an attractive and instructive landscaped setting. Attached weatherproof markers will identify visible minerals and rock types, and be linked to a large geologic map to permit self-guided tours. While waiting funding and construction of the final Rock Park site, specimens will be arranged as a temporary Museum display in the courtyard that faces Lincoln Park south of the Museum.

Location: On the grounds immediately east of the New York State Museum in Albany, situated in such a way as to enhance the grounds adjacent to the building, while providing an outdoor educational experience and a "drawing card" to the Museum.

Accessibility: Fully handicapped accessible, freely open to the public.

General: The Rock Park will display fifty or so rock monoliths, with appropriate descriptions keyed to a written pamphlet. The pamphlet will provide a discussion of both the geologic and the economic significance of the rock and mineral products of the State. It will also credit the specimen donors and financial contributors. The Park will center on a generalized geologic map of the State, in proper compass orientation, that is linked by graphics and landscape design to the monolith displays (see sample drawing). The selection of paving materials will be related to the displays they lead to. Displays and grounds will be durable, vandal resistant, well lit, and relatively maintenance free. A hose bib will provide water for hosing the display and for a drinking fountain. Grading and planting will blend into the existing Museum grounds. The Biological Survey will assist in plantings, relating them to the chemistry of adjacent rock types.

The rock specimens will be displayed to best show their significant geologic features. Some may lie flat on the ground, others free-standing or raised on pedestals. Samples weighing less than about 500 pounds will be permanently pinned to buried concrete piers to prevent vandalism. The samples will be arranged in spaces large enough to conduct small classroom type discussions concerning the features and significance of the samples. The self-guided interpretive signs will consist of simple messages in large print, possibly including some photographic images, and be weatherproof and vandal resistant. Surfaces in the park will have to be durable but can at the same time be eye-catching and instructional, such as by incorporating textures and colors in exposed aggregate containing selected pebble types from within the State. Other stone products, including artificial ones such as concrete and glazed baked brick pavement stones made from Hudson Valley clays, will be used in the paving. Grass areas will be minimal to reduce maintenance. Plant beds will be mulched and designed so as not to require difficult maneuvering with lawn mowers. Seasonal use is recommended to eliminate the need for snow and ice removal, as that would introduce machinery into the design and might damage the exhibit.

Logistics: To date (September, 1996), I have located and arranged for accession of about two dozen monoliths which are ready for transport.

Funding: Actual construction costs may be in the vicinity of $300,000, with the cost of contract drawings and supervision being about 15 percent of that. Strategies for funding are currently under discussion.

Please Help: This a call for assistance in locating suitable large specimens. Inasmuch as we do not possess equipment to load samples, obvious sources to consider are quarries, mines, and perhaps road construction sites. Readers may know of other alternatives. The goal is to show representative rock types, minerals, fossils, textures and structures, without any special concern for formation name or age, although such information can be included in the gallery guide. We will probably handle the broad aspects of stratigraphic sequence, age, etc. in a graphic display. Rock type varieties will come from four broad regions: sedimentary rocks from areas west of the Taconics, metamorphic sequences across the Taconics, high grade rocks from the Adirondacks, and a variety of types from southeastern New York.

I earnestly solicit your help in locating sources of geologically informative monoliths, as well as individual specimens that also have artistic and sculptural merit. We will, of course, acknowledge in the gallery guide all persons who have helped in this endeavor.

I can be reached at the Survey by mail, fax (518) 473-8496, phone (518) 474-5819, and e-mail:

Please give me your suggestions, even if you know of only one special site. A list of potential rock types is attached to simplify your task.

P.S. An optimistic after thought: if you have any suggestions as to a possible foundation funding source, fax it to me, and earn everlasting gratitude!

The Great Array of Rock Types that Make Up New York State

Low to Medium Grade (Taconics) High Grade (Adirondacks)
1. Conglomerate 1a. Conglomerate 1b. Flat-pebble conglomerate
2. Sandstone 2a. Quartzite 2b. Quartzite
3. Graywacke 3a. Metagraywacke 3b. Metagraywacke
4. Shale 4a. Slate 4b. Garnet-biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss
4a. Phyllite 4b. Migmatite with folds
4a. Schist
5. Arkose
6. Redbeds
7. Siltstone w/flute casts
8. Limestone 8a. F-gr calcite marble 8b. Crs-gr calcite marble
9. Limestone, cherty 9a. F-gr cherty marble 9b. Crs-gr cherty marble
10. Dolostone 10a. F-gr dolomite marble 10b. Crs-gr dolo marble
10b. Stromatolitic dolo marble
11. Diabase (columnar) 11a. F-gr amphibolite 11b. Crs-gr amphibolite
12. Pillow basalt 11a. F-gr amphibolite
13. Basaltic lava 11a. F-gr amphibolite
14. Olivine gabbro 14a. Serpentinite 14b. Olivine metagabbro
15. Anorthosite 15b. Metanorthosite
16. Pegmatite
17. Granite 17b. Hornblende granite gneiss
18. Syenite 18b. Syenite gneiss (charnockite)
19. Magnetite 27. Polished rocks 31. Layered rock 36. Anthracite coal
20. Ilmenite 28. Concrete; diverse cobbles 32. Folded rock 37. Pumice
21. Hematite 29. Drill core>18" diam. 33. Joint face 38. Scoria
22. Sphalerite 30. Bricks from clay 34. Faulted rock 39. Obsidian
23. Graphite 35. Glacially striated rock 40. Petrified tree trunk
24. Garnet
25. Talc-tremolite
26. Wollastonite
41. Clay  43. Gravel   44. Salt
42. Sand  44. Glacial till   46. Gypsum

IN NEW YORK IN 1994 AND 1995

If you desire more information on a project described herein, please write directly to the investigator; the New York State Geological Survey does not have research reports or reprints of publications for most of these projects because they are not sponsored by the Survey.


GOODMAN, William M., Sear-Brown Group, 85 Metro Park, Rochester, NY 14623-2674 with Timothy Roeper and Peter Smith; Hydrogeology of the Medina and Queenston Subcrop Belts

We have completed compilations of water quality data, hydraulic conductivity data, and stratigraphic data from NYSDEC regulated facilities on the Lake Ontario Plain. Our goal is to develop a regional hydrostratigraphic model to explain vertical and lateral water quality trends reflective of mixing of fresh meteoric water from naturally saline, old groundwater and brines. The Queenston/Medina unconformity is a preferred flow plane and serves as a vertical boundary between recharge conditions in the Medina Group and discharge conditions in the Queenston Formation.

WILSON, Michael, SUNY Fredonia, Geosciences Dept., Fredonia, NY 14063 with William Boria; Surface Water Parasites in Groundwater

This project, sponsored by the AWWA Research Foundation, develops methods to detect surface water parasite influences upon groundwater drinking supplies. It includes discussion of microscopic particulate analysis, temperature, turbidity, and conductivity tests in light of extensive hydrogeologic investigations.
Economic, Environmental, and Engineering Geology

FOOSE, Michael P., USGS, MS 954, Reston, VA 22092 with Jim Mclelland; Mineral Resource Assessment, Northeast United States.

This project will compile digital data on the northeastern states that will include geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and mineral occurrences. It will assess the undiscovered mineral resources of this region. As part of this process, the low Ti-iron oxide deposits of the Grenville in NY and NJ have been identified as part of the Kiruna-Olympic Dam deposit type.

FRIEDMAN, Gerald M., Northeastern Science Foundation affiliated with Brooklyn College-CUNY, Box 746, Troy, NY 12181-0746 with Jon E. Bass, Golam Sawar and Baiying Guo; Natural Gas Storage Assessment

This research program is designed to identify potential natural gas-storage sites in New York State. Detailed well-by-well study of historical gas production data helps assess field capacity and potential storage-field deliverability. Well log and well core analysis provides information on reservoir characteristics such as porosity, sandstone thickness, volume of shale, water saturation etc. Heterogeneities in porosity and permeability within the reservoirs has created a situation where some fields may be suitable for conversion to gas storage while adjacent fields are not. This research identifies those fields of the Medina Group which are suitable for conversion to gas storage.

This research also relates to identifying sites in New York which possess ideal geologic characteristics for salt cavern construction combined with ideal geologic location allowing easy access to pipelines and the newly emerging market center hub.

MATSON, Lawrence R., Ulster County Community College, Stone Ridge, NY 12484 with students; Hydrogeology of a Route US209 Sinkhole

A continuing study of a sinkhole that has been gradually enlarging for 20 years. Streambed springs have been located in an unnamed tributary to the Esopus Creek. Dye tracing has established that these springs receive surface water from US Route 209 and other surface water from the Stone Ridge area.

SILVERI, William V., Northeastern Science Foundation affiliated with Brooklyn College-CUNY, Box 746, Troy, NY 12181-0746 with Gerald Friedman; Effect of Bedrock Upon Trace Metal Levels in Lake Sediments. Croton Reservoir Westchester County, New York.

The purpose of the research project will be to determine whether bedrock has any significant influence upon levels of trace metals in lake sediments. The study area, Croton Reservoir, was selected because of its different rock assemblages. Particular attention has been given to an ultramafic igneous intrusion, the Cortlandt Complex, which outcrops at the northwest end of the study area. Analysis of bedrock samples from this intrusion indicates significantly higher levels of some trace metals. Sediment samples from the reservoir and bedload samples of streams entering the reservoir have been collected and analyzed for trace metals. Geochemical conditions that can affect the occurrence of these metals, pH and Eh, have been measured. The final phase of the research will involve sampling groundwater wells in the area.

WILSON, Michael, SUNY Fredonia, Geoscience Dept., Fredonia, NY 14063 with William Boria and Kelly Riforgiat; State of Chautauqua Lake

This project, sponsored by USEPA, NYSDEC, and others, investigates the chemical, biological and physical state of Chautauqua Lake. Important nutrient loading results were determined by robotic sampling of streams.

VAN TYNE, Arthur, Van Tyne Consulting, P.O. Box 326, Wellsville, NY 14895; Subsurface Locations of Onondaga Reefs

Continued subsurface investigations of structural trends and possible Onondaga Reef locations for private clients.

VAN TYNE, Arthur, Van Tyne Consulting, P.O. Box 326, Wellsville, NY 14895

Commenced assembly of data for study of Upper Devonian oil sands in western New York.

VAN TYNE, Arthur, Van Tyne Consulting, P.O. Box 326, Wellsville, NY 14895; Studies for Appalachian Gas Atlas

Completed final papers on: Middle Devonian Onondaga Limestone Reef Play, and Upper Silurian Bass Islands Trend, for Appalachian Gas Atlas of U.S. Department of Energy. This will be published in 1996.
Geophysics, Seismology, Broad Regional Geology

ISACHSEN, Yngvar W., NYS Geological Survey, Albany, NY 12230; Panther Mountain Circular Feature

A study is underway of cuttings of the Herdman Well, which is located near the northern periphery of the Panther Mountain Circular feature. The goal is to test the possibility that Panther Mountain circular drainage and negative gravity anomaly are caused by a buried impact crater (an intact impact). The cuttings are being searched for shock induced features such as shatter cone markings, breccias, fused glass, planar features in quartz, and displaced, repeated, or disrupted stratigraphic units that would test the impact hypothesis.

REVETTA, Frank, Geology Dept., SUNY College at Potsdam, Potsdam, NY 13676 with Shannon Jock; Relationship of Earthquakes to Gravity Anomalies in New York State

A geologic map, gravity map and seismicity map (1:1,000,000) are overlain to observe the relationship of earthquake distribution to the geology and gravity anomalies in New York State. The comparison indicates that most epicenters are located in areas of most pronounced gravity anomalies and steep gravity gradients. The crustal heterogeneity indicated by the gravity anomalies also indicate zones of weakness triggering the earthquakes. Areas of no gravity anomalies and low gradients have few earthquakes. Earthquake epicenters don't seem to be related to mapped surface faults.

REVETTA, Frank, Geology Dept., SUNY College at Potsdam, Potsdam, NY 13676 with Shannon Jock; Detailed Gravity Mapping in Northern New York

One thousand and fifty gravity measurements were made in northeastern New York between 44 30' and 45 00' North Latitude and 73 7.5' and 74 00' West Longitude. A total of six 15 minute quadrangles located in the northeastern flank of the Adirondacks and in the Champlain Valley were mapped with station spacings of about 2 kms. Gravity anomalies shown on the map were caused by density contrasts in the Precambrian basement. The most interesting gravity anomalies are a series of gravity highs trending in a northwest-southeast direction coinciding with a trend of earthquake epicenters in the northern New York-western Quebec seismic zone.

REVETTA, Frank, Geology Dept., SUNY College at Potsdam, Potsdam, NY 13676 with Carolyn Taylor; Local Earthquakes Recorded by Potsdam Seismic Network 1995

During the past year 21 local earthquakes of magnitude 2.0 to 3.9 were recorded by the Potsdam Seismic Network. Seven of the earthquakes had epicenters located in New York State. One earthquake had its epicenter located at Carry Falls Reservoir. Two earthquakes had epicenters near Russell, New York and one quake occurred north of Tupper Lake. Two earthquakes occurred in the Champlain Valley at the southern tip of Lake Champlain and west of Plattsburgh. A 3.1 magnitude earthquake with the epicenter located east of Buffalo was also recorded. The remaining events had epicenters in western Quebec.

VAN TYNE, Arthur, Van Tyne Consulting, P.O. Box 326, Wellsville, NY 14895; Seismic Reflection Studies

Made geophysical studies of more than 65 miles of deep seismic reflection profiles in several western New York counties as contractor to University of Buffalo, AKZO-Nobel Salt Co. and others.
Surficial Geology, Geomorphology (Pleistocene and Recent)

ANDERS, Fred, New York Department of State, Coastal Program, 162 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12231 with Mohabir Persaud; The Atlantic Coast of New York Monitoring Program

The goal of the program is to collect information on coastal processes and shoreline response along the south shore in order to improve coastal management decision making in all levels of government. The data and information will be available to the public. The program design elements include: 1) Beach surveys twice per year along 348 profile lines; 2) stereo aerial photography coordinated with (1); 3) analysis and updating of historical data on beach profiles and shoreline movements; 4) collection of wave data; 5) development of a computerized database; and 6) use of the data in conceptual empirical and numerical predictive models. Data has been collected for the spring and fall of 1995.

CALKIN, Parker E., Dept. of Geology, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-3050 with Eric Schultz; Surficial Geologic Map of the Chaffee-Sardinia-Holland Area

MA candidate Eric W. Schultz is assembling a 1:24,000 scale geologic map of the area between Cattaraugus Creek and Holland, NY, that also incorporates the communities of Chaffee and Sardinia. The study will include correlations of multiple till exposures and core data of the Chaffee landfill.

HOLLOCHER, Kurt, Geology Dept., Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308 with April Bemis; Geochemistry of the Hudson River in the Vicinity of Glens Falls, NY

We are examining changes in the composition of the Hudson River as it flows between Lake Luzern (town of) to Schuylerville. Preliminary results indicate that several tributaries have substantial differences in composition. Evaluation of the Hudson River itself has been complicated by near-shore boundary layers of groundwater outflow. Future sampling will have to be from nearer the river center. This work is a thesis and may not end up published.
Sedimentary Geology (Paleozoic-Cenozoic)

BAIRD, Gordon C., Dept. of Geosciences, SUNY Fredonia, Fredonia, NY 10463, with Carlton E. Brett, Charles Mitchell and John Delano; Medial Ordovician Stratigraphy-Paleoenvironments

This is an ongoing study of depositional-paleoenvironmental events associated with Trenton Group, Dolgeville Formation and Utica Shale deposition in New York State, to constrain timing of shelf submergence and basin evolution timed with Taconian orogeny. Stratigraphic matching of sections using event-beds is a major challenge and requires close collaboration with Mitchell (biostratigraphic expertise), John Delano (geochemical correlation expertise). Work, to date, has substantially revised much of the published stratigraphy of the Mohawk Valley Caradocian and is leading to a much higher resolution stratigraphy for these deposits.

BRETT, Carlton E., University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, with Gordon C. Baird; Evolutionary Ecology and Bioevents of Devonian Faunas

This research project, in collaboration with Niles Eldredge (American Museum of Natural History), involves a) recognition and documentation of blocks of stable lineages and biofacies, ecological-evolutionary subunits (EE-subunits) in the Silurian-Devonian of the Appalachian Basin; we have identified at least six such EE-subunits in the Lower to Middle Devonian of New York and Pennsylvania; b) resolving the boundaries of these units as precisely as possible in terms of biostratigraphy and sequence-cycle stratigraphy; we have focused on the Eifelian-Givetian interval, in which we have defined the "Onondaga", "Stony Hollow", "Hamilton-Tully," and "Genesee" faunas, each bounded by short-lived faunal crises and turnovers that appear to correlate with global bioevents, i.e. the lower and upper Kacak-Otamari and Pharciceras events (Brett and Baird, 1995); c) documentation of morphometrics of species lineages and community characteristics for samples throughout EE-subunits; the purpose of this research is to test for an apparent pattern of shared stability of faunas and biofacies throughout the 3-7 million year intervals of EE-subunits (Liebermann et al. 1995, a,b).
A next phase of our research will involve systematic analysis of stratigraphic, sedimentologic and geochemical (including stable isotopic) patterns associated with major faunal turnovers. This research is being conducted in collaboration with Brad Sageman and Dave Hollander (Northwestern University); it has been facilitated by access to several new cores through the entire middle-lower Upper Devonian (Eifelian-Frasnian) drilled in 1994-95 in western New York by Akzo Salt Corp.

BRETT, Carlton E., University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, with Charles Ver Straeten; Sequence and Event Stratigraphy of the Tristates and Onondaga Groups

Chuck Ver Straeten (1995) has just completed an extensive dissertation on the Emsian-Eifelian interval in New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland. He has established a detailed stratigraphic framework for the Emsian Tristates Group that is correlatable throughout most of the Appalachian Basin; Ver Straeten has utilized a combination of cycle and sequence stratigraphy, bioevents and epiboles, and K-bentonites, including a newly discovered bundle of ash beds within the lower Esopus Shale. These ash beds have been sampled and processed to extract and concentrate phenocrysts; next he will attempt to obtain radiometric dates from these samples.
Ver Straeten and I have also reestablished a detailed bed-level correlation of the Eifelain Onondaga Group in over 300 outcrops and cores in New York State, Ontario and Pennsylvania; we recognize two large-scale depositional sequences, numerous correlative smaller scale cycles (parasequences), including very widespread black, laminated shales within the Nedrow Member, bone beds, epiboles, and several previously unrecognized K-bentonites. This refined stratigraphic framework has enabled recognition of local flexures and sub-basins that display lateral, eastward migration during the Eifelian; this eastward translation may be related to relaxation of tectonic loads emplaced during the first tectophase of the Acadian Orogeny. Recognition of this phenomenon helps to explain many previously anomalous patterns of facies change in the Onondaga. For example, the well known linear trend of Onondaga pinnacle reefs in the New York-Pennsylvania subsurface appears to have been initiated during a relative low stand of sea level on a local arch (forebulge?); the reefs built upward during subsequent inversion of topography, as the arch shifted eastward. We are now attempting synthesize data on sequence stratigraphy, tectonics, and faunal change during the Eifelian.

BRETT, Carlton E., University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, with Gordon C. Baird; Sequence-Cycle Stratigraphy of the Upper Moscow, Tully, and Genesee Formations in Pennsylvania

Gordon Baird and I have begun an extensive survey of the upper Mahantango Shale (Hamilton Group, Givetian), Tully "Member", and Burkett-Harrell Shale in central Pennsylvania. Despite differences in terminology, we find that this interval can be correlated precisely with the Moscow, Tully, and Genesee formations of the New York type section; indeed we have recognized, for the first time the presence of many distinctive marker beds (e.g. Windom coral beds, Tully, Smyrna and West Brook shales and the Leicester, Lodi, and Genundewa condensed beds in the Genesee). Unconformities at base, middle and top of the Tully carbonates in New York can also be recognized in Pennsylvania, facilitating recognition of depositional sequences. We are also able to extend paleogeographic trends, such as basin axes and arches from New York into central Pennsylvania, along NE-SW trends. Future work will extend correlations and sampling into eastern Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia. We are also working with William Kirchgasser to establish conodont biostratigraphy of condensed beds.

BRETT, Carlton E., University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, with Gordon C. Baird; Devonian Bedrock Geology of the South Onondaga 7.5' Quadrangle

In 1994 and early 1995 Gordon Baird and I completed a detailed survey of most bedrock outcrops in the South Onondaga Quadrangle. In conjunction with the New York State Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey we have prepared a bedrock map of the quadrangle, and a revised stratigraphic column for the area. In addition to discovering several minor faults and folds, we make the following new observations: a) an undescribed hematitic sandstone occurs in the position of the Schoharie Formation in cuts along I-81; b) detailed internal (bed-level) stratigraphy has been established for the Onondga Formation; this includes recognition of key markers such as paired black beds in the type Nedrow Member that are traceable very widely in the Appalachian basin; c) a new submember has been traced into the quadrangle within the lower Delphi Station Member; it displays a consistent auloporid coral biostrome that overlies a coarsening upward cycle; d) five minor traceable cycles have been recognized within the upper part of the Skaneateles Formation; e) we have traced a number of bed-level units from the west into the quadrangle. Finally, we have made bulk samples and counts of fossils through many intervals to greatly expand our database on Hamilton fossil communities.

BRETT, Carlton E., University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627,Silurian Research Projects, 1995

I am continuing to work with William Goodman, Mark Kleffner, and others on studies of sequence and cycle stratigraphy and bioevents in the Silurian of the Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania region. I am working with Frank Ettensohn on delineation of a third tectophase of the Taconic Orogeny that is recorded in the Appalachian foreland as the Tuscarora-Medina clastic wedge and the subsidence and migration of a marine basin (the Power Glen-Cabot Head basin) in Ontario, southwestern New York and Ohio.

I am also working with Wendy Taylor (Paleontological Research Institute, Ithaca) on comparative paleoecology of pelmatozoan thicket communities in the Carodocian to Ludlovian interval. We are attempting to determine whether or not patterns of stability and punctuated restructuring documented for level bottom brachiopod-dominated faunas also apply and are synchronous in pelmatozoan-bryozoan thicket communities. In particular, we are testing for patterns of change in diversity, tiering, and guild structure in pelmatozoan associations across times of major faunal crisis, including the Ashgill extinctions.

Of course, I am increasingly involved in preparations for the James Hall Symposium (2nd International Symposium on the Silurian System) to be held in August, 1996 here in Rochester. I look forward to seeing many of you at the meeting and on our field excursions into the classic Appalachian Basin Silurian strata.

DIETRICH, R.V., 1323 Center Drive, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858; Concretions, A Review

Literature review plus field observations, collecting, and petrographic and chemical investigations in the laboratory.

FELDMAN, Debra J., Dept. of Teacher Education, Manhattanville College, 2900 Purchase Street, Purchase, NY 10577; Stratigraphy, Paleontology and Structure of Rock Outcrops for Study by Special Education Students

I am currently preparing a series of field excursions for special education students in geology (K-8). Since these students often have difficulty in transferring information from one setting to another, it is useful to apply classroom information to a real world setting. I plan to use field trips to achieve this goal. These trips must be structured with the needs of special education students in mind. Critical to the success of the field experience, for example, are visual aids. Accessibility to the outcrop area is essential, particularly for those students who are physically handicapped. I am searching for outcrops in the Silurian and Devonian formations of the mid-Hudson Valley, an area that is within close proximity to the New York metropolitan region. The limestones of the Helderberg Group, the Onondaga Formation and basal Hamilton units will be visited and studied in terms of stratigraphy, paleontology and structure.

FELDMAN, Howard R., Dept. of Invertebrates, American Museum Natural History, New York, NY 10024 with Charles A. Ver Straten and Carlton E. Brett; Brachiopods of the Mount Marion Formation in the Hudson Valley

Additional studies of the fossil communities in the Middle Devonian Mount Marion Formation (Hamilton Group) were started during the summer of 1995. This work will concentrate on morphological variation and paleoecology of the brachiopods. The lower part of the Otsego Member in the Hudson Valley near Kingston, New York, was sampled at two localities where shell beds were found to occur cyclically, separated by approximately 3-8 meters of unfossiliferous mudstones. Work will continue in the spring of 1996.

FRIEDMAN, Gerald M., Brooklyn College and Graduate Center of CUNY, Northeastern Science Foundation, Box 746, Troy, NY 12181-0746; Uppermost Cambrian Brecciolas and Micritic Deep-Water Carbonate Deposits

The micrite is interpreted to have formed in a submarine shelf-edge setting. The brecciolas represent a shelf-edge facies that one or more tsunamis broke loose. To break down such a tough, cemented rock at a depth of up to several kilometers may require an energy level of meteorite impact. Alternating thin-bedded micrite and calcareous shale reflect rapid changes in sealevel. Such cycles may be explained as astronomical rhythms.

HICKS, Jason F., Yale University, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 with Charles Wray; Paleocurrent Orientation of Crinoids from the Coeymans Limestone of the Helderberg Group

A statistical analysis has been made of 1091 orientation measurements of two genera of crinoid calyces and associated stem fragments which are preserved on a 6 by 7 ft (1.8 m by 2.1) slab of Coeymans Limestone from the Lower Devonian Helderberg Group of New York State. Collected in 1903 from a quarry near the village of Days Corner, this slab has been on display in Yale University's Peabody Museum of Natural History since the early part of this century. The dense accumulation of crinoid fossils on a single bedding surface represents a catastrophic storm event that tore the crinoids from their life position on the sea floor, transported them, and then smothered them in a fine micritic mud that contributed to their excellent preservation. The calyces of the two genera of crinoid represented, Ctenocrinus and Cordylocrinus, were deposited in orientations that were controlled by the hydrodynamic properties of their body forms. Experiments with life-size models in a flume suggest that the crinoids were oriented under complex flow conditions on the sea floor, where oscillatory wave motion was compounded by an ebb flow bottom current after the storm event.

KOLKAS, Mossbah M., Dept. of Geology, Brooklyn College and Graduate School of CUNY, Brooklyn, NY ll2l0, with Gerald M. Friedman; Facies Distribution, Stratigraphy, Diagenesis, and Petrophysical Characteristics of the Sauk Sequence (Cambro-Ordovician) of Niagara County, Western New York

Analyses of core samples, collected from Waste Disposal Test Well #1, Niagara County, New York, indicate that the Beekmantown Group (Sauk Sequence) of this region was deposited in a shallow, tidally influenced marine environment. A shallowing upward succession of eight different lithofacies has been recognized. These lithofacies, from bottom to top, are: 1) coarse-grained sandstone; 2) bioturbated, sandy dolostone; 3) glauconitic, sandy dolostone; 4) stylolitic, sandy dolostone; 5) stromatolitic dolostone; 6) oolitic dolostone; 7) laminated, silty to sandy dolostone; and 8) quartzose dolostone.
Continuous fluctuation of sea level during the Cambro Ordovician period controlled the stacking pattern of the lithofacies.
Irregular porosities and recovery efficiencies throughout the succession are interpreted to be due to varying depositional conditions and different degrees of diagenetic modifications.

OLIVER, William A. Jr., U.S. Geological Survey and Dept. of Paleobiology, E-305 Natural History, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC 20560; Corals and Biostratigraphy of Pridolian and Lochkovian Strata in the Appalachian Basin from New York to Virginia

Rugose corals from the fine-grained stromatoporoidal facies of the Pridolian and Lochkovian stages in New York and the Appalachians are being described and their stratigraphic distributions analyzed. A change from Embolophyllum to "Spomgophylloides" dominance seems to mark the Silurian-Devonian boundary. Three papers are in press.

OLIVER, William A. Jr., U.S. Geological Survey and Dept. of Paleobiology, E-305 Natural History, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC 20560; Middle Devonian Rugose Corals of New York

Devonian rugose corals, principally from the Onondaga-Tully interval, are being described and their stratigraphic distribution (time and facies) analyzed in an attempt to understand the history and fate of this highly endemic fauna. Part 2 of the Siphonophrentidae is in preparation and studies of the Zaphrentidae and Bethanyphyllidae are in progress. Preliminary papers on the Zaphrentidae and Ptenophyllidae have been submitted for publication or are in press.

OLIVER, William A. Jr., U.S. Geological Survey and Dept. of Paleobiology, E-305 Natural History, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC 20560 with James E. Sorauf; Heliophyllum (Devonian Rugose Coral) in New York

We are trying to attain a comprehensive understanding of the genus through a study of its gross morphological and microstructural variation and its distribution in time and space. An interpretive study of four colonial forms is in press.

PHILIPS, Shruti S., Dept. of Geology, Brooklyn College and Graduate Center of CUNY, 33 West 42 Street, New York, NY 10036 with Gerald M. Friedman; Carbonate Diagenesis and Dolomitization of Cambro-Ordovician (Sauk Sequence) Platform Strata in Central New York

This study focuses on the diagenetic history of the Sauk Sequence carbonates in an attempt to decipher the timing, processes and stages of dolomitization. These Lower Paleozoic platform carbonates, exposed in the Mohawk Valley and Saratoga Springs area in central New York, were deposited in a shallow continental shelf environment; their strontium-isotopic composition is consistent with that of Late Cambrian seawater. This sequence is distinguished here as the Upper Cambrian Little Falls, Galway and Hoyt formations and the Lower Ordovician Gailor and Tribes Hill formations.
Outcrop studies reveal that the bulk of this sequence is dolomitized. The Little Falls and Galway formations are composed of interbedded dolostones and sandstones displaying herringbone cross-strata, planar and domal stromatolites, intraclasts, bird's eye structures and local chert horizons. The Hoyt formation is extremely fossiliferous with columnar, domal and planar stromatolites and trilobites. The younger Gailor and Tribes Hill formations display planar stromatolites, chert horizons, solution-collapse breccia, bird's eye vugs, the strata becoming increasingly fossiliferous towards the top. The Knox unconformity lies atop at the lower Ordovician in the Mohawk Valley. A peritidal environment of deposition is inferred for the entire sequence.
Plane-light and cathodoluminescence petrography have revealed different types of dolomite generations including zoned dolomites, unzoned red luminescent dolomite, nonluminescent dolomite, saddle dolomite and dedolomite. The diagenetic history of the entire sequence clearly includes multiple episodes of dolomitization, chertification, calcite cementation and karstification.
Detailed petrographic and geochemical studies of these carbonates are in progress with the aim of understanding better the diagenetic processes involved in their evolution.

SCAL, Roland, Dept. of Geology, Brooklyn College and The Graduate School - CUNY, New York, NY 10036 with Gerald M. Friedman; Heavy Mineral Petrographical Provenance Analysis of Sandstones of the Catskill Clastic Wedge, New York: An Update

We continue our study of sandstones of the Catskill clastic wedge. During 1994-95 we have collected 100 samples from fifty locations. Our objective is to relate heavy mineral suites to provenance of the sandstones and the stratigraphic framework developed over the last century. Many of our samples are collected from type and classic locations described in the NYS Geological Association field guide books and other well-studied locations. The heavy mineral suites are dominated by tourmaline and zircon. Preliminary varietal study shows a high proportion of zoned igneous zircon exhibiting little abrasion. We will continue studying the trace elements of the zircon populations with the help of J.M. Hanchar (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) and relate this to changes in provenance.

SCHIMMRICH, Steven, Dept. of Geology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 with Stephen Marshak; The Nature and Origin of Veins in the Hudson Valley Fold-Thrust Belt, New York

My Ph.D. dissertation is an integrated structural and geochemical study of quartz and calcite veins exposed within the Hudson Valley fold-thrust belt (HVB) in order to address the following four unresolved questions:

1) Has the HVB been affected by more than one major deformational event (e.g. Acadian and Alleghanian)?
2) What were the sources and migrational pathways for vein-forming fluids within the HVB?
3) How and under what conditions did the different types of veins present within the HVB form?
4) What information do fault-parallel veins along thrusts within the HVB reveal about the kinematics of fold-thrust belt development?

Field and geochemical studies, begun in the summer of 1995, on veins within the HVB will provide insight into the P-T conditions under which the veins formed, how these condition vary along the strike of the HVB, the strain significance of the veins, and the process(es) of vein formation within the HVB. These data may be used to address the issues of whether the HVB represents two overlapping fold-thrust belts, the origin of HVB vein-forming fluids, and whether thrusts within the HVB moved by a crack-seal or a pressure-solution process.

SEILACHER, Adolf, Kline Geology Lab, P.O. Box 208109, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 with Friederich Pfluger; Oriskany Paleoecology

Due to a unique diagenetic situation, the Oriskany Sandstone preserves a rich shelly fauna that would normally be gone in such coarse siliciclastic sediments. The brachiopods, crinoids, and corals can be etched out and recast with rubber. They show unique adaptations to these highly mobile bottoms.

SEILACHER, Adolf, Kline Geology Lab, P.O. Box 208109, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 with Friederich Pfluger; Portage Sedimentary Structures

The sedimentary structures (including the trace fossil Solemyatuba) show that the Portage is not a turbiditic deep water facies, but consists of shallow marine flood sediments (inundites). The walls of the New York State Museum in Albany provide a unique opportunity to study relevant bedding plane features.

STOCK, Carl W., Dept. of Geology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0338; Lower Devonian Stromatoporoid from the Coeymans Formation of Central New York

Work on the Coeymans stromatoporoids creeps toward closure. Genera present include Habrostroma, Parallelostroma, Coenostroma, Atopostroma, and Coenostelodictyon.

STOCK, Carl W., Dept. of Geology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0338; Lower Silurian Stromatoporoidea from Wallington Limestone Member of the Reynales Formation of Western New York

Work on the stromatoporoids from the Wallington is just beginning. It is part of a project to study Llandovery-age stromatoporoids throughout the U.S.

TITUS, Robert, Geology Dept., Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY 13820; Paleontology of the Trenton Group

I continue to work on patterns of evolution in the Trenton Limestone. The work on Rafinesquina is nearly done and some preliminary work on Dinorthis has begun.
Igneous and Metamorphic Geology (Precambrian)

BERKLEY, John L., Geosciences Dept., SUNY, Fredonia, NY 14063; Petrology/Geochemistry of Ordovician Ash Deposits Preserved in Carbonate Matrix, Mohawk Valley

K-bentonite ash deposits commonly interbedded with shale units (mainly Utica black shale) have been known from Ordovician age strata for some time (e.g., see Delano et al., 1990, v. 98, J. of Geol.). These ash beds probably arise from island-arc volcanism to the east associated with Iapetus closing during the initial phases of the Taconic orogeny. We have performed detailed bulk chemical analyses (trace, minor, and major elements), electron microprobe analyses, and optical and back-scattered electron imaging of selected ash samples from the Mohawk Valley of eastern New York State. Our initial sample suite includes highly altered clay-rich K-bentonites, mixed clay-carbonate units, and carbonate-rich members, commonly occurring as nodules or lenticular strata. The major focus of this study is the carbonate-rich ash beds. Our initial conjecture was that original ash textures and compositions might be preserved by secondary carbonate replacement; recent work supports this idea.

Many carbonate-rich ash beds in our suite show well preserved shard textures reminiscent of more modern felsic tuffs. In addition, REE patterns and other trace element patterns show less evidence for either post-ash fall sedimentary admixing or diagenetic contamination in carbonate-rich ash compared to clay-rich ash. Thus, initial results show that carbonate-rich ash units are the best candidates for more-or-less "pristine" igneous ash beds (ignoring the carbonate matrix) among known ash units in Ordovician strata. In fact some shards are preserved as silica-feldspar intergrowths, probably representing true devitrified volcanic glass. Further work will include microprobe analyses of this material to attempt to decipher the original glass composition.

FAKUNDINY, Robert H., N.Y.S. Geological Survey with Peter D. Muller, Dept. of Earth Sciences, SUNY-Oneonta, Oneonta, NY 13820. Emplacement History and Deformation of the Marcy Massif, Northeast Adirondack Mountains

Detailed geologic mapping of metanorthosite and related rocks in the Elizabethtown 15-Minute Quadrangle and reinterpretation of the geology of surrounding quadrangles reveals a history of at least two and possibly up to four different episodes of anorthosite emplacement. The first is followed by a period of localized ductile shearing. The resulting ductile deformation zones in the Au Sable Forks, Elizabethtown, and Keene areas were then deformed by the emplacement of the Jay and Westport anorthosite domes. Later anorthosite emplacement by passive stoping was followed by another shearing event that emplaced flat-bottomed anorthosite sheets across all earlier structures. This last event was probably the result of tectonic collapse of the overly thickened Grenvillian crust and was accompanied by late-stage invasion of fluids along collapse structures that deposited the iron-titanium ores at Tahawas.

HELENEK, Henry L., Dept. of Geological Sciences, Bradley University, Peoria, IL 61606; Subdivision of the Byram Gneiss (Middle Proterozoic, Northern Reading Prong, New York-New Jersey) into Informal Lithic-Chemic Units Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis

I am completing a study involving subdivision of high-K granitoid gneisses of Spencer's Byram Gneiss lithodeme. Six informal lithic-chemic units of different chronological age have been discriminated within the Byram Gneiss, the most interesting being an intrusive unit with strong alkaline affinities. Also granitoid gneisses underlying the southeastern Reading Prong have different lithic-chemic characteristics than similar gneisses exposed northwest of the Reservoir Fault. Davis Young of Calvin College is carrying out trace element and REE studies on these same rocks.

ISACHSEN, Y.W., N.Y.S. Geological Survey with J. Hurowitz; Digitized Dike Map

A digitized dike map of the Adirondacks, showing 20 unmetamorphosed dike types and 5 metamorphosed types is nearly completed.

VALLEY, John W., University of Wisconsin-Madison, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, 1215 West Dayton Street, Madison, WI 53706, with John Eiler, Nami Kitchen, Martha Gerdes, and Katrina Edwards; Metamorphic Petrology and Stable Isotope Geochemistry

We are continuing a number of projects applying petrology and stable isotopes to problems relating to the thermal and fluids history of the Adirondacks as described by recent abstracts and papers.
History of Geology

YOCHELSON, Ellis L., Dept. of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560; Biography of C.D. Walcott

My biography of C.D. Walcott from birth until the time he became Secretary of Smithsonian Institution has been completed. This includes boyhood in Utica, years at Trenton Falls and time in Albany.

I am still interested in any Walcott facts or stories anyone might have heard.

I am also finding that there is a difference between writing a manuscript and finding a publisher.

Applebaum, Robert H.S., Dynamic shelf processes and tempestite sedimentology in the Upper Devonian Sonyea Group near Bainbridge, New York. M.A., SUNY Oneonta, 1993.

Boria, Vicki, Phosphorus Loading in Chautauqua Lake. M.S., SUNY Fredonia, 1995.

Eiler, John M., Diffusion of stable isotopes in metamorphic rocks: theoretical and applied studies, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1995.

Kitchen, Nami E., Carbon isotope thermometry in marbles of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, M.S., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1994.

Kucewicz, John C. Jr., Hydrogeology of municipal well sites in glacial valley aquifers: City of Oneonta, Villages of Franklin and Walton, and Town of Laurens, New York, M.A., SUNY Oneonta, 1993.

Liener, Michael D., Quaternary stratigraphy of Monroe County, west central New York State: M.A., SUNY Buffalo, 1995.

O'Keefe, Richard F. III, Hudson River salt front dynamics, West Point, New York, M.A., SUNY Oneonta, 1993.

Ver Straeten, Charles A., Stratigraphic synthesis and tectonic and sequence stratigraphic framework, upper Lower and Middle Devonian, northern and central Appalachian Basin. Ph.D., University of Rochester, 1995.


Bass, J.P., Sarwar, G., Guo, B., and Friedman, G.M., 1995, Potential and future development of salt cavern storage in the Upper Silurian Syracuse Formation of south-central New York. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 79, no. 9, p. 1410, abstract.

Bechtel, S.C. and Mehrtens, C., 1995, Black River Group stratigraphy and sedimentology in the Champlain Valley, Vermont, and New York. Northeastern Geology and Environmental Geology, v. 17, no. 1, p. 95-111.

Brett, C.E., 1995, Sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and taphonomy in shallow marine environments. Palaios 10.

Brett, C.E. and Baird, G.C., 1995, Coordinated stasis and evolutionary ecology of Silurian-Devonian faunas in the Appalachian Basin. In Erwin, D.H. and Anstey, R.L., eds., New Approaches to Speciation in the Fossil Record. Columbia University Press, New York, p. 285-315.

Brett, C.E., Tepper, D.H., Goodman, W.M., LoDuca, S.T., and Eckert, B.Y., 1995, Revised stratigraphy and correlations of the Niagaran Provincial Series (Medina, Clinton, and Lockport Groups) in the type-area of western New York. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2086, 66p.

Brett, C.E. and Baird, G.C., 1994, Depositional sequences, cycles, and foreland basin dynamics in the Late Middle Devonian (Givetian) of the Genesee Valley and western Finger Lakes region. New York State Geological Association, 66th Annual Field Trip Guidebook, p. 505-585.

Brett, C.E. and Ver Straeten, C.A., 1994, Stratigraphy and facies relationships of the Eifelian Onondaga Limestone (Middle Devonian) in western and west-central New York State. New York State Geological Association, 66th Annual Field Trip Guidebook, p. 221-269.

Brice, W.R., 1995, Field camp in the Helderbergs-1900 to 1909, Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 2, p. 188-194.

Carl, J.D. and DeLorraine, W.F., 1995, Origin of amphibolite layering in Precambrian Hyde School Gneiss, northwest Adirondacks, New York, Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 2, p. 117-129.

DeAngelis, E.E., 1995, The Casper Creek and Cedar Valley overthrusts: folded overthrusts bringing Sauk Sequence carbonates (Cambro-Ordovician) over Tippecanoe Sequence foreland basin shales (Middle and Upper? Ordovician), southwestern Dutchess County, New York, Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 1, p. 10-22.

Edwards, K.J. and Valley, J.W., 1995, Empirical evaluation of diffusivity using zonation of oxygen isotopes in diopside: How "wet" is "dry" metamorphism? Geol. Soc. Am., Abstracts with Program 27, v. 6, p. A263.

Eiler, J.M., Valley, J.W., Graham, C.M., and Baumgartner, L.P., 1995, Ion microprobe evidence for the mechanisms of stable-isotope retrogression in high-grade metamorphic rocks. Contr. Mineral. Petrol. v. 118, p. 365-378.

Eiler, J.M., Valley, J.W., Graham, C.M., and Gaumgartner, L.P., 1995, The oxygen isotope anatomy of a slowly cooled metamorphic rock. Amer. Mineral. v. 80, p. 757-764.

Eiler, J.M., Valley, J.W., Baumgartner, L.P., and Graham, C.M., 1994, The oxygen isotope anatomy of a slowly cooled metamorphic rock. Geol. Soc. Am., Abstracts with Program 26/7, p. A43.

Eiler, J.M. and Valley, J.W., 1994, Preservation of pre-metamorphic oxygen isotope ratios in granitic orthogneiss from the Adirondack Mountains, New York. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta v. 58, p. 5525-5535.

Fakundiny, R.H., 1994, Tectonic subdivisions of the mid-Proterozoic Adirondack Highlands in northeastern New York, Northeastern Geology, v. 16, no. 2, p. 82-93.

Foose, M.P. and McLelland, J.M., 1995, Proterozoic low-Ti iron oxide deposits in New York and New Jersey: Relation to re-oxide (Cu-U-Au-rare earth element) deposits and tectonic implications. Geology, v. 23, p. 665-668.

Friedman, G.M., 1995, Onondaga pinnacle reefs in New York State. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 79, no. 9, p. 1413, abs.

Friedman, G.M. and Bass, J.P., 1995, Troy, New York: Epitome of the history of geology in North America. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 79, no. 9, p. 1413, abs.

Friedman, G.M. and Sanders, J.E., 1995, Northwest-dipping bedding thrust in Rondout Formation (U. Silurian), Ravina, NY: implications for extent of post-Devonian thrusts. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 79, no. 9, p. 1413, abs.

Friedman, G.M. and Sanders, J.E., 1995, Hummocky strata in deep-water "intra-formational conglomerates"/brecciolas overlying regularly bedded hemipelagic Hatch Hill (U. Cambrian) limestones: products of tsunami waves? Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 79, no. 9, p. 1413, abs.

Friedman, G.M., Sarwar, G., Bass, J.P., and Guo, B., 1995, Underground gas storage in New York State: a historical perspective. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 79, no. 9, p. 1413, abs.

Friedman, G.M. and Chamberlain, J.A. Jr., 1995, Oldest fresh-water clams in oldest fluvial back swamp facies (Upper Middle Devonian) Catskill Mountains, New York. Geol. Soc. Amer. Abstracts with Programs, Northeastern Section, v. 27, no. 1, p. 45.

Friedman, G.M., 1995, Intra-Sauk karst and paleosoils as parasequence boundaries. Paleokarst Field Conference Bahamian Field Station, p.7, abs.

Friedman, G.M., 1995, Cambro-Lower Ordovician (Sauk) facies and sequences: case histories from eastern North America: Permian Basin Section-SEPM Publication 95-36, PBGC Publication 5-95, p. 1-9.

Friedman, G.M., 1995, Discussion. An overview of the Hamilton Group of western New York and a description of the Wanakah Shale as exposed in western Erie County. New York Earth Science and the Environment v. 2, p. 58-59.

Friedman, G.M., 1995, Flysch and molasse of the classical Taconic and Acadian orogenies: models for subsurface reservoir settings In Garver, J.I. and Smith, J.A., eds. Field Trips for the 67th Annual Meeting of the New York State Geological Association. Union College, Schenectady, NY, p. 109-143.

Friedman, G.M., 1995, Sequence stratigraphy of platform carbonates: Devonian limestones of John Boyd Thacher State Park, southwest of Albany, NY In Garver, J.I. and Smith, J.A. eds. Field Trips for the 67th, Annual Meeting of the New York State Geological Association. Union College, Schenectady, NY, p. 303-311.

Friedman, G.M., 1995, Siderite concretions in Middle Devonian Hamilton Formation of the Catskill tectonic fan-delta complex, New York. Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 4, p. 420-421.

Friedman, G.M. and Chamberlain, J.A. Jr., 1995, Archanodon Catskillensis (Vanuxem): Fresh-water clams from one of the oldest back-swamp fluvial facies (Upper Middle Devonian), Catskill Mountains, New York, Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 4, p. 431-443.

Friedman, G.M., 1994, Porosity-permeability development below parasequence surface in upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician (Sauk) platform carbonates of the Northern Appalachian passive margin. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Annual Convention Abstracts, p. 192.

Friedman, G.M., 1994, Overthrusting into foreland basins: New York, USA, Meeting Report: Journal of Petroleum Geology, v. 17, p. 119, abs.

Friedman, G.M., 1994, Dolostone-hosted sulfide occurrences in Silurian strata, Appalachian Basin of New York, p. 77-88. In Fontbote, L. and Boni, M., eds; Sediment-Hosted Zn-Pb Ores, Spec. Publ. No. 10, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 471p.

Friedman, G.M., 1994, Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician (Sauk) platform carbonates of the northern Appalachian (Gondwana) passive margin, Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 9, no. 2, p. 143-150.

Friedman, G.M., 1994, Stacking patterns of cyclic parasequences in Cambro-Ordovician carbonates of eastern New York State and western Vermont, Northeastern Geology, v. 16, no. 2, p. 145-157.

Gerdes, M.L. and Valley, J.W., 1994, Fluid flow and mass transport at the Valentine wollastonite deposit, Adirondack Mountains, NY. Jour. Metamorphic Geol., v. 12, p. 589-608.

Goodman, W.M. and Brett, C.E., 1994, Roles of eustasy and tectonics in development of Silurian stratigraphic architecture of the Appalachian Foreland Basin. In Tectonic and Eustatic Controls on Sedimentary Cycles, SEPM. Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology #4, p. 147-169.

Goodman, W.M., Cole, R.B., and Lehmann, D.F., 1994, The hydrogeology of landfill sites in western New York. In Brett, C.E. and Scatterday, eds., Field Trip Guidebook, New York State Geological Association, 66th Annual Meeting, Rochester, NY, p. 5-85.

Guo, B., Bass, J.P., Sarwar, G., and Friedman, G.M., 1995, Future of underground gas storage in Cambro-Ordovician (Sauk Sequence) rocks, southeastern New York. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 79, no. 9, p. 1414, abs.

Guo, B., Sanders, J.E., and Friedman, G.M., 1994, Sedimentary breccias in Pine Plains Formation (U. Cambrian, Sauk Sequence), SE New York: sequence-stratigraphic implications: Geol. Soc. of Amer., Northeastern Section, Abstracts, p. 21.

Hollocher, J. and Hollocher, K., 1995, Building stones of Schenectady, New York. In Garver, J.I. and Smith, J.A. eds, Field Trip Guide for the 67th Annual Meeting of the New York State Geological Association, Union College, Schenectady, NY, p. 275-291.

Hollocher, K., 1995, Traverse across the Taconian Orogen. In Garver, J.I. and Smith, J.A. eds, Field Trip Guide for the 67th Annual Meeting of the New York State Geological Association, Union College, Schenectady, NY, p. 145-161.

Isachsen, Y.W., Wright, S.F., and Revetta, F.A., 1994, The Panther Mountain circular feature possibly hides a buried impact crater, Northeastern Geology, v. 16, no. 2, p. 123-136.

Johnson, K.G., 1995, Hudson river landscape paintings: a serendipitous opportunity to introduce students to the creative process in the arts and the natural sciences, Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 3, p. 295-305.

Jordan, W.M., 1995, History of Earth Sciences Society Symposium, Troy, NY, July 7-9, 1994, Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 2, p. 170.

Jordan, W.M., 1995, Art and understanding the Catskills, Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 2, p. 183-187.

Kitchen, N.E. and Valley, J.W., 1995, Carbon isotope thermometry in marbles of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, Jour. Metamorphic Geol. 13, p. 577-594.

Kitchen, N.E. and Valley, J.W., 1994, Carbon isotope thermometry in the Adirondacks. ICOG 8, U.S. Geol. Surv. Circ. 1107, p. 175.

Klapper, G. and Oliver, W.A. Jr., 1995, The Detroit River Group is Middle Devonian: Discussion of "Early Devonian age of the Detroit River Group, inferred from Arctic stromatoporoids". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 32, p. 1070-1073.

Kolkas, M.M. and Friedman, G.M., 1995, Facies distribution and stratigraphy of the Sauk Sequence (Cambro-Ordovician) of Niagara County (western New York). Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 79, no. 9, p. 1415. abs.

Lafferty, A.G., Miller, A.I., and Brett, C.E., 1994, Comparative spatial variability in faunal composition along two Middle Devonian paleoenvironmental gradients. Palaios, v. 9, p. 224-236.

Laymon, C., Lakatos, S., Ward, T., Harbottle, G., and Lin, W-J, 1994, Radionuclides in Late Wisconsinan and recent sediments of eastern Long Island, New York. Northeastern Geology, v. 16, no. 3&4, p. 194-201.

Lehmann, D.M., Brett, C.M., Cole, R., and Baird, G.C., 1995, Distal sedimentation in a peripheral foreland basin: Ordovician black shales and associated flysch of the western Taconic Foreland, New York State and Ontario. Geol. Soc. America Bull. v. 107, no. 6, p. 708-724.

Lewis, R.A., 1994, Distribution of surficial sediments in Fishers Island Sound, New York, Connecticut, and Rhode Island 1:24,000 scale. U.S. Geol. Surv. Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map-I 2456.

Lieberman, B.S., Brett, C.E., and Eldredge, N., 1994, Patterns of stasis in two species lineages of brachiopods from the Middle Devonian of New York State. American Museum Novitates, no. 3114, p. 23.

Lieberman, B.S., Brett, C.E., and Eldredge, N., 1995, A study of stasis and change in two lineages from the Middle Devonian of New York State. Paleobiology, v. 21, p. 15-27.

Lindemann, R.H., 1995, Magnitudes of early diagenetic compaction in the Onondaga Limestone of central and eastern New York. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 79, no. 9, p. 1416. abs.

LoDuca, S.T., 1995, First report of Eurypterida from the Rochester Shale, Silurian (Wenlockian), New York. Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 3, p. 271-273.

LoDuca S.T., 1995, Thallophytic-alga-dominated biotas from the Silurian. Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 4, p. 371-382.

LoDuca, S.T. and Brett, C.E., 1994, Revised stratigraphic and facies relationships of the lower part of the Clinton Group (middle Llandoverian) of western New York. In Landing, E., ed., Studies in Stratigraphy and Paleontology in Honor of Donald W. Fisher, New York State Museum Bulletin 481, p. 161-182.

Mayer, S.M., Baird, G.C., and Brett, C.E., 1994, Correlation of facies divisions in the uppermost Ludlowville Formation (Givetian) across western and central New York State. In Landing, E., ed., Studies in Stratigraphy and Honor of Donald W. Fisher. New York State Museum Bulletin 481, p. 229-264.

Morris, P.M., Ivany, L., Schopf, K., and Brett, C.E., 1995, The challenge of paleoecological stasis: reassessing sources of evolutionary stability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 92, p. 11269-11273.

Muller, E.H. and Cadwell, D.H., 1994, Meltwater channels on west slope of Tug Hill plateau, New York. Northeastern Geology, v. 16, no. 2, p. 109-115.

Oliver, W.A. Jr. and Sorauf, J.E., 1995, The origins and relationships of colonial Heliophyllum in the Middle Devonian (Givetian) of New York. International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria VII, Madrid, Abstracts, p. 62-63.

Oliver, W.A. Jr. and Cairns, S.D., 1994, MEMORIAL: John West Wells, 1907-1994 [Including complete bibliography]. Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, v. 23, no. 1-2, p. 12.

Oliver, W.A. Jr. and Pedder, A.E.H., 1994, Crises in the Devonian history of the rugose corals. Paleobiology, v. 29(2), p. 178-190.

Oliver, W.A. Jr. and Hecht, W.S., 1994, Well preserved favositid corals in the Oriskany Sandstone (Lower Devonian) of New York. New York State Museum Bulletin 481, p. 265-287.

Oliver, W.A. Jr. and Sorauf, J.E., 1994, Branching Heliophyllum (Devonian rugose corals) from New York and Ohio. Journal of Paleontology, v. 68, p. 1183-1201.

Oliver, W.A. Jr. and Cairns, S.D., 1994, Memorial to John West Wells, 1907-1994 [with selected bibl.]. Geological Society of America, Memorials, v. 25, p. 121-124.

Philips, S.S. and Friedman, G.M., 1995, Carbonate diagenesis and dolomitization of Cambro-Ordovician (Sauk sequence) platform strata in Central New York. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 79, no. 9, p. 1417-1418, abs.

Revetta, F.A. and Butterfield, J., 1995, Earthquakes recorded by Potsdam Seismic Network during the past year. Geol. Soc. of America Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, p. 33.

Revetta, F.A., 1995, Potsdam Seismic Network and its applications. Education, Research and Public Service, vol. 1, #1, p.20-39.

Revetta, F.A. and Taylor, C.A., 1995, Relationship between seismicity and geologic structure in northern New York and southern Quebec. Geol. Soc. Amer., Abstracts with Programs, v. 27, p. 77.

Sanders, J.E., 1995, Lower Paleozoic carbonate-clast diamictites: relationship to overthrusts that advanced across the floor of the northern Appalachian Ordovician foreland basin, Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 1, p. 23-45.

Sanders, J.E. and Baiying, G., 1995, Poughkeepsie "Melange": a monomict quartzite-block diamictite in the northern Appalachian Ordovician foreland basin, Dutchess County, New York, Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 1, p. 46-60.

Sarwar, G. and Friedman, G.M., 1995, Post-Devonian sediment cover over New York State: evidence from fluid-inclusion, organic maturation, clay diagenesis and stable isotope studies. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Berlin-Heidelberg, Springer Verlag, 113 p.

Sarwar, G., Bass, J.P., Guo, B., and Friedman, G.M., 1995, Potential for new conventional gas-storage fields in New York State. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 79, no. 9, p. 1418-1419, abs.

Sarwar, G. and Friedman, G.M., 1994, Late Paleozoic sediment cover on the Adirondacks, New York: evidence from fluid inclusions and clay diagensis. Northeastern Geology, v. 16, no. 1, p. 18-36.

Shuster, E.L., LaFleur, R.G., and Boylen, C.W., 1994, The hydrologic budget of Lake George, southeastern Adirondack Mountains of New York, Northeastern Geology, v. 16, no. 2, p. 94-108.

Simonsen, J.M. and Friedman, G.M., 1995, Closely spaced twin lamellae in calcite crystals and other features as diagnostic indicators of deep-burial diagenesis in limestones. 1st SEPM Congress on Sedimentary Geology, p. 114, abs.

Sitzman, S.D., Banfield, J.F., and Valley J., 1994, Serpentine/talc filled submicroscopic solution channels in metamorphic magnetite: an explanation for micron-scale oxygen isotope heterogeneity? Geol. Soc. Am., Abstracts with Program 26/7, p. A43.

Slattery, W., Depositional cycles and sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Hamilton Group (Givetian) of Pennsylvania and New York: eustatically driven? Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 4, p. 422-430.

Spanagel, D.I., 1995, Great convulsions and parallel scratches: the era of romantic geology in upstate New York, Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 17, no. 2, p. 179-182.

Stock, C.W., 1995, Actinostromatid stromatoporoids in the Upper Silurian (Pridoli) of the Appalachians. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 27, no. 2, p. 90-91.

Stock, C.W., 1995, Paleobiogeographical range of North American Devonian stromatoporoids: the roles of global and regional controls. VII International Symposium on Fossil Cridaria and Porifera, Madrid, Spain, p. 89, abs.

Stock, C.W., 1994, Paleobiogeography of the Eastern America's Realm stromatoporoids during the Lochkovian Age (Early Devonian). Geological Society of America, Abstracts with programs, v. 26, no. 7, p. A487.

Stock, C.W., 1994, Stromatoporoid paleobiogeography of the Eastern America's Realm during the Lochkovian Age (Early Devonian). In van Soest, R.W.M., van Kempen, T.M.G., and Braekman, J.C. eds., Sponges in Time and Space: Biology, Chemistry, Paleontology, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Stock, C.W., 1995, Two new genera of actinostromatid stromatoporoids. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 27, no. 6, p. A51.

Thaler, J.S., 1994, Climate of Albany County, Northeastern Geology, v. 16, no. 3&4, p. 162-193.

Valley, J.W., Kitchen, N.E., Kohn, M.J., Niendorf, C.R., and Spicuzza, M.J., 1995, UWG-2, a garnet standard for oxygen isotope ratio: strategies for high precision and accuracy with laser heating, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59, in press, issue #24.

Valley, J.W., Eiler, J.M., Kohn, M.J., Spicuzza, M.J., Baumgartner, L.P., Elsenheimer, D., and Graham, C.M., 1994, Contrasting styles of oxygen isotope exchange. Mineralogical Magazine 58A, p. 924-925.

Valley, J.W., Chiarenzelli, and McLelland, J.M., 1994, Oxygen isotope geochemistry of zircon. Ear. Plan. Sci. Lett. v. 126, p. 187-206.

Ver Straeten, C.A. and Brett, C.E., 1995, Lower and Middle Devonian foreland basin fill in the Catskill Front. New York State Geological Association 67th Annual Field Trip Guidebook, p. 313-356.

Ver Straeten, C.A., Brett, C.E., and Albright, S.S., 1995, Stratigraphic and sedimentologic overview of the upper Lower and Middle Devonian, New Jersey and adjacent areas. In Baker, J.E.B., ed., Contributions to the Paleontology of New Jersey, Geological Association of New Jersey, v. 12, p. 229-239.

Ver Straeten, C.A. and Brett, C.E., 1995, Tectonic and sequence stratigraphic framework, upper Lower and Middle Devonian, northern and central Appalachian Basin. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs 27, p. A331.

Ver Straeten, C.A. and Brett, C.E., 1995, Unconformities and basinal flexure in the northern and central Appalachian Basin during Acadian tectophase I (Pragian to early Eifelian). Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs 27, p. 90.

Ver Straeten, C.A., Griffing, D.H., and Brett, C.E., 1994, The lower part of the Marcellus "Shale", central to western New York. New York State Geological Association, 66th Annual Meeting Guidebook, p. 270-321.

Wall, G.R. and LaFleur, R.G., 1994, Post-glacial paleochannel development in the Hudson/Mohawk lowlands, New York. Northeastern Geology, v. 16, no. 2, p. 116-122.

Walsh, D.C., LaFleur, R.G., and Bopp, R.F., 1994, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in old landfills. Northeastern Geology, v. 16, no. 2, p. 137-144.

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